GDV Packaging Handbook

[German version]

Table of contents

1  Definition: "Fit-for-purpose packaging"
1.1  Assumed loads
1.2  Static mechanical loads
1.3  Dynamic mechanical loads
   1.3.1  Load values as specified in the Guidelines for Packing of Cargo Transport Units
   1.3.2  Assumed loads during air transport
   1.3.3  Calculation of the acceleration forces
1.4  Load types
   1.4.1  Horizontal and vertical shock loads
   1.4.2  Tipping loads / risk of tipping
   1.4.3  Marking the center of gravity
   1.4.4  Loads caused by oscillations/vibrations
   1.4.5  Loads during handling
   1.4.6  Loads on general cargo during handling with cranes
   1.4.7  Loads on general cargo during handling with forklift trucks, loads on the box floor
2  Protection from the climate and the weather
2.1  Protection from spray/dust
   2.1.1  Temperature
   2.1.2  Humidity
   2.1.3  Interaction between temperature and humidity
2.2  Effects of climatic stress on the packages
3  Period the packaged goods spend in the transport packaging
3.1  Inspection mechanisms for protecting the packaged goods in the transport packaging
4  Securing the packaged goods, inner packaging
4.1  General preparatory measures on the item to be packaged
4.2  Corrosion protection during shipping
   4.2.1  Corrosion
   4.2.2  Susceptibility to corrosion
   4.2.3  Existing protective measures
4.3  Corrosion protection measures on the packaged goods, cleaning of surfaces
4.4  Corrosion protection methods during shipping
   4.4.1  The inert gas method
   4.4.2  The protective coating method
   4.4.3  The VCI method (Volatile Corrosion Inhibitor)
   4.4.4  The desiccant method
4.5  Indicators
   4.5.1  Humidity indicators
   4.5.2  Tilt indicators
   4.5.3  Jolt and shock indicators
   4.5.4  Recorders
5  Material qualities
5.1  Cut lumber (spruce, pine)
   5.1.1  Dimensional changes
   5.1.2  Specific weight
   5.1.3  Strength of cut lumber
   5.1.4  Lumber qualities
   5.1.5  Dimensions
   5.1.6  Phytosanitary requirements
5.2  Derived lumber products
   5.2.1  Requirements with respect to derived lumber products
5.3  Films
   5.3.1  Polyethylene films (PE films)
   5.3.2  Aluminum composite films
5.4  Cushioning / shock-absorbing elements
   5.4.1  Air bags
   5.4.2  Bubble films
   5.4.3  Rubberized fiber cushioning
   5.4.4  Foams
   5.4.5  Vibration- and shock-absorbing elements
5.5  Nails
5.6  Bolts
6  Constructing boxes and crates
6.1  General
   6.1.1  Safety clearance between packaging and packaged goods
6.2  Basic design features of a box/crate
   6.2.1  Design features of a cut-lumber/sheet material box
6.3  Description of the elements
   6.3.1  Floor element
   6.3.2  Side wall / end wall elements
   6.3.3  Lid element
6.4  Weight and volume classes of boxes and crates
6.5  Securing and bracing the cargo in the box/crate
6.6  Load securing aids on the box/crate, aids to stowage
   6.6.1  Aids for loading and unloading packages in containers
6.7   High-volume boxes/crates
6.8  Special considerations with crates
6.9  Notes on the construction of floors and lids for boxes/crates
7  Accompanying packaging
8  Bundles
9  Partial cladding
10  Sleds
11  Markings
12  Load securing
12.1  Securing packages (boxes, crates, frame constructions and sleds)
12.2  Possible load-securing measures for packages
13  Cable drums