This Handbook uses the dynamic load values as specified in the internationally applicable Guidelines for Packing of Cargo Transport Units. These Guidelines describe the load values for the road, rail and sea modes of transport. For particular transport task under consideration, the maximum acceleration forces generated by each of the modes of transport and acting in the direction of the load must be taken into account. This acceleration profile is the decisive factor with respect to securing the packaged goods within the boxes. The design of the box and the load-securing measures used are also determined by these acceleration values.
Figure 1: Directions of acceleration
Table 1: Assumed loads as per the Guidelines for Packing of Cargo Transport Units
The values given above must be combined with the downward force of gravity of 1 g and any dynamic fluctuations (vertical) as follows:
In the case of rail transport, figures from Deutsche Bahn show that acceleration forces of 4 g can be caused during hump shunting. This must be taken into consideration in particular when securing the goods within the packages. The design, dimensions and the connections between the individual packaging elements must be adequate to absorb these shock loads. It is possible that higher shock loads should be assumed for rail transport outside Europe.