Ready-made garments, clothing [German version]

Table of contents

General:
Product information
Packaging
Transport
  Container transport
  Cargo securing


Risk factors and loss prevention:
Temperature Odor
Humidity/Moisture Contamination
Ventilation Mechanical influences
Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health
Gases Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft
Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation / Diseases




Product information

Product name

German Konfektion, Bekleidung
English Ready-made garments, clothing
French Vêtements, confection
Spanish Vestidos
CN/HS number * 61 ff. and 62 ff.


(* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)



Product description

Ready-made garments are mass-produced finished textile products of the clothing industry. They are made from many different fabrics and yarns. Their characteristics depend on the fibers used in their manufacture. Ready-made garments are divided into the following types:

Outer clothing: workwear and uniform, leisure wear, sportswear (e.g. suits, pants, dresses, ladies' suits, blouses, blazers, jackets, cardigans, pullovers, coats, sports jackets, skirts, shirts (short- or long-sleeved), ties,  jeans, shorts, T-shirts, polo shirts, sports shirts, tracksuits, bathing shorts, bathing suits, bikinis etc.)
Underclothing (underwear): jersey goods, lingerie (e.g. underpants, undershirts, briefs, socks, stockings, pantyhose etc.)

Most jersey underwear consists of knitwear made from cotton or synthetic filament warp-knit goods (Dederon, nylon). Knitwear is divided into fully fashioned and cut goods:

Fully fashioned jersey goods are produced in finished form and size with securely finished edges; they are a high-quality product, as the loops cannot run at the edges.
Cut jersey goods are cut from tubular knit piece goods and sewn together; they are a lower value product, as the loops can run at the edges and the fit of the garment is not as good as in the case of fully fashioned jersey goods as the knitted fabric may twist out of shape.



Quality / Duration of storage

Extended exposure to light puts natural and manmade fibers at risk due to photomechanical degradation processes; natural silk, polyamide fibers, jute and ramie are particularly sensitive.


Countries of origin

Ready-made garments are today transported worldwide from and to all continents.


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Packaging

When transported by truck, outer clothing is often carried as hanging garments , while other clothing items are generally transported in folding cartons and primarily containerized. Hanging garments must be inserted into tight-fitting individual dust covers, sealed at the bottom. When outer clothing is shipped in folding cartons, it is essential, in particular for higher quality goods, for the folding cartons to be lined with tissue paper or the like, the individual items to be secured and interlayers used. The cartons often consist of wet strength corrugated board.

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Marking of packages
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Keep dry
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Transport

Symbols

Symbol, general cargo

General cargo



Means of transport

Ship, truck, railroad, aircraft


Container transport

Standard containers are suitable for transporting ready-made garments, subject to compliance with limits for water content of goods, packaging and flooring.

Garment containers are best suited to transporting items of clothing, as they provide maximum protection against creasing, dust and dirt. Garment containers have bars for hanging up items of clothing on coat-hangers. The bars are generally anchored in perforated rails in the walls. The coat-hangers are secured by special clips. A horizontally openable curtain is located between the door  and the inside. The wooden floor is impregnated and lined with floor covering (carpet).


Cargo handling

In damp weather (rain, snow), the cargo must be protected from moisture, since garments are strongly hygroscopic and readily absorb moisture.


Stowage factor

2.30 - 9.47 m³/t (cartons) [1]
1.08 - 6.06 m³/t (boxes) [1]



Stowage space requirements

The holds/containers must be dry and clean. The stowage space must be away from heat sources. In particular, holds must be free of oily patches.


Segregation

Marker pen/oil crayon, slip or label bearing product data and/or bar code.


Cargo securing

The cargo must be stowed in such a way that the boxes or cartons do not slip and become damaged during transport.

Where garments are shipped hanging, the shipping container (e.g. ISO container,  box body/swap body) must be carefully inspected for cleanness, leakproofness and the ability to secure individual coat-hangers firmly. The coat-hangers must be secured on the bars with retaining clips.

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For long-distance road transport, trucks with air suspension should generally be used.


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Risk factors and loss prevention

RF Temperature

Ready-made garments require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions).

Favorable travel temperature range: 10 - 30°C [1]

Optimum travel temperature: 20°C [1]

Ready-made garments are best stored at 20°C ± 5°C. Transient temperature variations within the range of 10 - 30°C do not impair quality.

Excessively high temperatures result from solar radiation, for example, or from stowage too close to heat sources (heated tanks etc.) and not only lead to an increase in the risk from pests and microorganisms but also have a significant impact on the physical characteristics of the fibers, which may no longer comply with tolerance limits with regard to strength, elongation, shrinkage, crease tendency, electrical conductivity and brittleness. Synthetic materials may even develop permanent creases.

Excessively low temperatures result in loss of strength.


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RF Humidity/Moisture

Ready-made garments require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Designation Humidity/water content Source
Relative humidity 45 - 70% [1]
Water content 8 - 12% (woolen fabric)

7.85 - 8.50% (cotton fabric)
[1]
Maximum equilibrium moisture content 70% [1]


Ready-made garments made from natural fibers are hygroscopic (hygroscopicity), while those made from synthetic fibers are only slightly so.

A relative humidity of 45 - 70% is deemed optimal. Specified humidity levels can be maintained in airtight packaging by using desiccants. Excessively high humidity levels and seawater, rain and condensation water may cause mustiness, mildew stains and mold growth and increase levels of insect infestation. Rust stains may arise as a result of the corrosion of metal strapping. Natural fibers converted into woven fabrics have a high swelling index, caused by their histological microstructure. Thus, for instance, modified cotton may absorb up to 25% of its own weight of water without feeling damp. This has a significant effect on the physical characteristics of the fibers, such as strength, elongation, creasing tendency and electrical conductivity.

If contact with chloride solutions, e.g. seawater, is suspected, a seawater test using the silver nitrate method must be performed.


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RF Ventilation

Ready-made garments require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Recommended ventilation conditions: air exchange rate: 6 changes/hour (airing), if the dew point of the external air is lower than the dew point of the hold air.


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RF Biotic activity

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Gases

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion

The goods are liable to catch fire due to the structure of the processed natural and manmade fibers and the surface treatment or finishing which they have undergone. Smoking must therefore be strictly prohibited during loading/unloading of the holds/containers. CO2 should preferably be used to extinguish fires.


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RF Odor

Active behavior Ready-made garments may release a slightly unpleasant odor. Since they are generally treated with impregnating and finishing agents, they should as a precaution not be stowed together with odor-sensitive goods. Odor tainting may also be caused by insecticides (risk of moth infestation).

In the case of workwear, an unpleasant odor may be caused by certain finishing substances used to improve wearability or to provide resistance to rotting, mold and pests.
Passive behavior Ready-made garments are highly sensitive to foreign odors. The modified fabric surface and high pore volume allow unpleasant odors to be very readily absorbed, which may indirectly result in depreciation.



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RF Contamination

Active behavior Ready-made garments are a very clean cargo.
Passive behavior Dust, colorants, ores, dirt, rust or leakages of accompanying cargo (acids, molasses, glue, fats/oils, lubricants etc.) may contaminate the cartons or the goods themselves and lead to a reduction in utility value.

Garment containers and special truck bodies must be leakproof and possibly lined with carpet, to stop dust, dirt and other foreign bodies from penetrating or being swirled up, as, despite the protective covers on the garments, even the smallest foreign bodies may trigger pilling of the surface of the fabric.



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RF Mechanical influences

Garments are sensitive to mechanical stresses. Excessively thin plastic covers may tear if stowed too tightly and form chafing points, which cause undesirable pilling or snagging of the surface of the fabric. This impairs the appearance of the surface (depreciation). The coat-hangers must therefore be properly secured (clips) and the items of clothing adequately wrapped to protect them from rubbing together/chafing.


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RF Toxicity / Hazards to health

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft

Ready-made garments are very valuable and are therefore at acute risk of theft. Containers should be stowed such that the doors of adjacent containers face towards each other. The use of special seals is recommended.


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RF Insect infestation / Diseases

The goods themselves are seldom subject to insect infestation. However, when damp they very rapidly succumb to attack by mold and rot-causing bacteria, especially in conjunction with any finishes which may have been applied. Mildew stains of a gray-green or brown-black color develop and produce a musty odor. The risk of insect infestation is lower for clothing made from polyester fibers than for clothing made from natural fibers.

The holds/containers must be pest-free, since many insects which are normally typical pests of foodstuffs and animal feed may also damage textiles, especially if they seek out these materials for metamorphosis. In their search for breeding grounds or pupation sites, they penetrate boxes and cartons and even bite through metal foils and plastic films and may thereby cause considerable destruction. For instance, a consignment of pullovers from East Asia displayed eating damage caused by red-legged ham beetles (Necrobia rufipes), which had hatched out of a consignment of copra transported in the same hold and multiplied considerably in number. In their search for new breeding grounds, the beetles had got into wooden boxes and thence through metal foils, cartons and finally through plastic bags into the woolen goods. As this environment did not appeal to them, they tried to chew their way back out and, in so doing, caused considerable destruction to the pullovers. Larvae from the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) also migrated during transport from an accompanying cargo of flour and rolled oats into a consignment of pullovers, for pupation.

Therefore, do not stow in a hold/container together with foodstuffs and animal feed or hides/furs.


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