Trucks [German version]

Table of contents

General:
Product information
Packaging
Transport
  Container transport
  Cargo securing


Risk factors and loss prevention:
Temperature Odor
Humidity/Moisture Contamination
Ventilation Mechanical influences
Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health
Gases Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft
Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation
    Additional information




Product information

Product name

German Lastkraftwagen, Lastwagen, Laster
English Trucks, Lorries
French Camions
Spanish Camiones
CN/HS number * 8701 ff., 8702 ff. and 8704 ff.


(* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)



Product description

Trucks are subdivided into straight trucks without or with trailers (truck combinations) and truck tractors with semitrailers (articulated trucks) and special vehicles. Depending upon their intended use, trucks are produced with box bodies or flatbed bodies (with or without hoops and tarpaulins), tank, silo, dump or swap bodies. Construction, military, fire-fighting, cleaning and many other types of vehicles are equipped with special bodies or loading aids (e.g. cranes, lifting platforms).

German road traffic licensing regulations (StVZO) draw a fundamental distinction between trucks (pursuant to §18, para. 8g StVZO, "a motor vehicle intended for carrying goods") with or without a body and truck tractors (pursuant to §18, para. 9h StVZO "motor vehicles constructed exclusively or primarily for pulling trailers"). Further factors which must also be taken  into account are in particular the dimensions of the vehicles and vehicle combinations, number of trailers, cornering characteristics, axle load and gross weight as well as engine power. Exemptions may be permitted subject to possible conditions.

The following explanations also relate to buses and coaches.

Trucks are generally powered by an internal combustion engine.


Quality / Duration of storage

Before acceptance by the intended means of transport, the vehicles must be thoroughly checked to verify whether they meet the requirements for safe transport. In particular, it is essential to ensure that

doors, windows and tank fillers are securely closed,
the tires are pumped up to a sufficient air pressure,
the windshield washer contains sufficient water,
external damage has been recorded and shown on the shipping documents,
installed or dismantled accessories (e.g. radios, external mirrors) and spare parts are complete and in good condition,
the fuel tank contains the appropriate quantity of fuel for cargo handling activities,
the vehicle's battery is functional and installed in an upright position,
or the battery which had been disconnected for extended intermediate storage has been reconnected.


Normally, duration of storage is not a limiting factor as regards transport and storage life.


Intended use

Depending upon their design or equipment, trucks are used for transporting the most varied goods or for performing specific tasks (e.g. special vehicles).


Figures

(Click on the individual Figures to enlarge them.)

Figure 1

Figure 1
Figure 2

Figure 2
Figure 3

Figure 3
Figure 4

Figure 4
Figure 5

Figure 5
Figure 6

Figure 6



Countries of origin

This Table shows only a selection of the most important countries of origin and should not be thought of as exhaustive.

Europe Germany, Spain, Italy, Great Britain,  France, Sweden
Africa  
Asia Republic of Korea, Japan
America USA, Canada, Mexico
Australia  


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Packaging

Newly manufactured trucks are covered with films, foam cushioning or plastic moldings at sensitive points, such as the bumpers, lights, exterior mirrors, hood, driver's door, fenders, spoilers, roof, wheel rims and hubcaps, or the entire cab is covered with a shroud.

Figure 7

Figure 7


Interior fittings (seats, rear view mirror, high grade trim, gear shift and steering wheel) are often covered with protective shrouds or adhesive films. Dismantled accessories are packaged in cartons or film in the vehicle cab, on the chassis or in the body.


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Transport

Symbols

Symbol, general cargo

General cargo



Means of transport

Ship (roll-on/roll-off ship, container/ro-ro ship, ferry), truck, railroad, aircraft


Container transport

Appropriately secured, trucks and similar vehicles may be transported on open-top containers with tarpaulins, hard-top containers, flatracks or platforms.


Cargo handling

Trucks and similar vehicles are primarily transferred onto the means of transport on their own wheels via ramps (roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro)) ships, ferries and combined container/ro-ro ships, car carriers, truck carriers, low loaders, special railroad flat freight cars or low platform freight cars (truck-on-train, TT).

Figure 8

Figure 8


Conventional loading (lift-on/lift-off (lo-lo)) is rare today or is used only for used vehicles. Special gear for crane handling must be used for conventional loading and care must be taken to ensure that the brakes on the vehicle are not applied as severe vibration and oblique hoisting may cause the vehicle to rotate around the blocked wheels.

Damage often arises due to incorrect cargo handling during loading and unloading of the means of transport and while the vehicles are being driven around the storage lot (speeding, collisions).

During loading and unloading operations, care should be taken to ensure that

the angle of the loading ramps is between 6 and 7° so that the tops of the bodies suffer no damage,
the vehicle windshields provide an unobstructed view (essential),
trained truck drivers are used,
handling personnel wear special working clothes without metal fastenings or zips,
instructions from loading supervisors are followed to the letter,
right-hand drive or left-hand drive vehicles are appropriately stowed so that once the vehicle has been parked the driver can get out on the still unobstructed side.


Stowage factor

Variable depending upon vehicle type.


Stowage space requirements

Cool, good ventilation, below deck for maritime transport.

The following general criteria should also be taken into account:

Admissible deck and ramp loads must not be exceeded.
The stowage spaces for maritime transport must be protected from direct ingress of seawater and, if possible, low acceleration forces should apply (e.g. stowage spaces amidships).
Stowage spaces must be free from grease, oil and other friction-reducing substances.
Stowage spaces in which the deck surfaces may permanently be at high temperatures (e.g. due to heated tanks) must be insulated with wooden dunnage to ensure that the tires suffer no damage.
Depending upon the type of suspension (leaf spring, coil spring and air suspension), care must be taken to ensure that the spacing left between the individual vehicles is sufficient to prevent them from damaging each other due to their differing vibration behavior and to allow appropriate cargo securing to be applied.
Vehicles must not be transported on the ship's deck without the shipper's knowledge.


Segregation

Oil crayon, slip bearing vehicle data and possibly bar code visible through windshield.


Cargo securing

The manufacturer's loading instructions must be complied with.

Cargo securing is basically dependent upon the available securing means, the weight and type of vehicle and where it is stowed. The following explanations relate only to vehicles in the unladen state.

The means of transport must be equipped for lashing vehicles correctly (lashings, lashing points, such as lashing rings and lashing pots and the like). When lashing belts, chains or wire ropes are used, care must be taken to ensure that the same number are used at both the front and rear of the vehicle. If no specific loading instructions are available, such lashings are attached to special lashing rings or to the vehicle's towing gear. If no or insufficient lashing rings are available, the lashings may be attached to the springs, axles and, under certain circumstances, to the chassis or vehicle frame. Lashings must not, however, be fixed to wheels, rims or bumpers.

Vehicles weighing more than 20 metric tons tend to act heavily on their springs and should thus be supported on trestles to relieve the springs.


Cargo securing examples:

Ro-ro ship, special ro-ro ship (car carrier):

Use lashing chains or wire ropes with tighteners (e.g. turnbuckles or spindle clamps) or lashing belts (e.g. truck lashing belts with ratchets) to absorb horizontal forces in order to avoid slippage and tipping. In maritime transport, cargo securing means should be tight, but not highly prestressed (see Fig. 19).

On inclined surfaces (ramps) and in the case of stowage athwartships, wheel chocks are additionally used and the number of front and rear lashing belts on the vehicle must be increased appropriately (see Fig. 20).

Figure 9

Figure 9



Conventional ship or container:

Use lashing chains or wire ropes with tighteners or lashing belts together with wheel chocks; in the case of stowage athwartships and on inclined surfaces, the number of front and rear lashing belts on the vehicle must be increased appropriately. In maritime transport, lashing chains and belts should be tight, but not highly prestressed.

Figure 10

Figure 10
Figure 11

Figure 11
Figure 12

Figure 12


Truck:

When trucks are transported on special truck carriers, they are secured with lockable stirrups or wheel chocks and three-point lashing belts or multipart special belts, it generally being necessary to lash down each wheel individually. On low loaders, in contrast, lashing chains or wire ropes and wheel blocks are often used.

Figure 13

Figure 13
Figure 14

Figure 14
Figure 15

Figure 15


Figure 16

Figure 16
Figure 17

Figure 17



Railroad:

When trucks are transported on block trains using special railroad flat freight cars or low platform freight cars (truck-on-train, TT), they may be secured with lockable stirrups or wheel chocks, with stirrups being positioned in front of and behind each individual wheel). Twin axles are secured with a wheel chock in front of the first axle and a wheel chock behind the second axle. When trucks are transported as general cargo on flat freight cars, they must be secured with lashing chains or wire ropes and wheel chocks to withstand switching impacts of 4 times acceleration due to gravity.

Figure 18

Figure 18
Figure 19

Figure 19
Figure 20

Figure 20
Figure 21

Figure 21



Aircraft:

Trucks are transported in widebody aircraft on combined air freight pallets with multipart special belts on all wheels and lashings applied to lashing rings on the bodywork.


General:

Both when applying and subsequently removing cargo securing materials, appropriate care must be taken to avoid damaging the vehicle.

Care must furthermore be taken to ensure that

only wheel chocks or stirrups of sufficient height (height between 1/8 and 1/6 of wheel diameter) which may be properly locked in place are used,
hooks are only tensioned, and not stressed to bending,
no damaged belts, wire ropes or chains are used,
belts and chains are not twisted.


If the vehicle is so equipped, its parking brake must be applied and the steering lock engaged.

Incorrect securing of vehicles on the means of transport easily results in damage.

For further information see also the chapters entitled

"Basic physical principles of cargo securing",
"Road vehicles, selection, equipping and loading capacity" and
"Cargo Securing Materials" in the GDV Cargo Securing Manual.


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Risk factors and loss prevention

RF Temperature

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Humidity/Moisture

The interior fittings of vehicles may in particular be damaged (rust, mold, discoloration) by extended exposure to excessive moisture, such as excessive relative humidities. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to ventilate the interior and dissipate any moisture by opening the windows, as there is otherwise a risk of rust and mold growth.

However, when in the open, the windows and doors of the vehicles should be closed in order to prevent penetration by rain water.


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RF Ventilation

Trucks require particular ventilation conditions (SC I) (storage climate conditions).

Ventilation is necessary in order to eliminate contaminants which are detrimental to health and which form explosive mixtures in conjunction with air. This problem arises in particular with ro-ro shipment, where dissipation of the exhaust gases must be ensured. Ships must have highly effective ventilation systems in order to ensure a constant supply of fresh air during and after loading or unloading operations. This also applies to ferries if the exhaust gases reach areas used by passengers.

Good ventilation is necessary in ocean-going vessels in order to avoid rust and mold growth (see risk factor Humidity/Moisture).


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RF Biotic activity

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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Gases

Flammable gases may be released by forced venting of the vehicle's fuel tank. The tank should accordingly only be filled with sufficient fuel for the vehicle to be driven at the terminal and for cargo handling purposes.

Exhaust gases released during loading and unloading operations must be dissipated by appropriate ventilation.


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RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Odor

Active behavior Loading and unloading operations on ro-ro ships may result in an odor nuisance in the hold which must be eliminated by suitable ventilation measures.
Passive behavior Trucks are not generally odor-sensitive. However, odor tainting, in particular of the upholstery, has occurred in ports due to adjacent cargo handling areas for goods with a strong odor, such as for example fish meal.



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RF Contamination

Active behavior In order to prevent leakage of oil or brake fluid, the vehicles must not be kept at an excessively steep angle.
Passive behavior Risk of soiling of paintwork e.g. by industrial fallout, paint mist from shipyard operations, sand storms. During railroad transport, sparks from the overhead power line  may cause burn damage to paintwork.

A wax or acrylic coating or adhesive films may be applied to protect the paint surface from more serious soiling. Removal of snow and ice before and after loading must be carried out with care. Coarse particles of dust and dirt stuck to waxed windshields may cause serious scratching when the windshield washer is operated. Wax or acrylic coatings must thus not be applied onto windshields.

Modern cleaning methods make it possible to diminish the losses arising from large areas of damage to paintwork, e.g. by metal dust, because the replacement of whole bodywork parts is avoided.

The working clothing for cargo handling personnel must be clean so that the interior fittings of the vehicles are not soiled.



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RF Mechanical influences

In order to avoid damage by mechanical stresses, it is essential that stowing and lashing on the means of transport are performed carefully and in accordance with instructions.

Possible damage includes: damage to paintwork, scratching, damage due to bending, denting, glass breakage, fine (hairline) scratches or flying stones. The relevant areas should be protected by adhesive films or cushioning material.

During railroad transport, paintwork may be damaged by sandblasting on bridges. During railroad transport, sparks from the overhead power line may cause burn damage to paintwork.

In order to avoid hail damage, it is advisable to erect hail nets at particularly at-risk storage lots.

Handling personnel should wear special clothing without metal fastenings.

Vehicles should be kept in marked parking areas during storage and intermediate storage. If the parking area is disorganized, vehicles may be overlooked and damaged.

Comply with the manufacturer's stowing and loading instructions.


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RF Toxicity / Hazards to health

If ventilation is inadequate, exhaust gases may be harmful to human health. Ships must accordingly  have highly effective ventilation systems in order to ensure a constant supply of fresh air during and after loading or unloading operations and dissipate any exhaust gases which arise.


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RF Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft

In order to avoid the risk of deliberate damage by vandalism (e.g. stone throwing), the vehicles should be kept in intermediate storage only in guarded and fenced storage lots. In order to reduce the risk of entire vehicles being stolen, vehicle keys should be left inside the vehicle only in guarded and fenced storage lots. However, separate storage is better.

In order to reduce the risk of theft of easily removed, valuable vehicle parts (radios etc.), the latter should be shipped separately.


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RF Insect infestation

While on storage lots, insects (e.g. ants) may mistakenly find their way into vehicles or martens may damage the engine compartments.


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Additional information

Risks arise at the following points in the transport chain:

in the factory storage facility (after passing through the counting station in the manufacturing plant)
loading onto truck, railroad or inland waterway vessel and transfer
unloading at port or destination
storage at the port
loading into ocean-going vessel (stevedores)
voyage in ocean-going vessel
unloading at port of destination
intermediate storage at port of destination
loading for onward transport and transfer
unloading at final destination until placement in storage


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