##### 2  Conventional rules and calculation methods
[German version]

 Conventional calculation methods distinguish between direct lashing and tie-down lashing and apply both kinds of securing to the aims of securing items against sliding and tipping. Virtually no account is taken in the calculations of compaction, which is often encountered in road freight transport in the form of strapping or bundling. Conventional calculation methods are briefly presented below, with emphasis on the general conditions and simplifying assumptions which apply. In order to clarify the most recent trends, the calculation conventions from three regulatory texts will be presented and, if necessary, compared: Source [1] VDI 2700, Sheet 2, November 2002, Source [2] DIN EN 12195-1, April 2004, Source [3] DIN EN 12195-1, January 2009. The systems of notation for the operands in the formulae vary between the stated regulatory texts. In order to facilitate comparability, the following standard system is used for the purposes of this presentation: F = force in the securing device assumed in the calculation [kN] Fx, Fy, Fz = force components in the system of coordinates of the loading area [kN] L = length of the securing device [m] X, Y, Z = geometric components of length L [m] m = cargo mass [t] fx, fy = coefficients of acceleration in the longitudinal and transverse directions m = coefficient of friction n = number of parallel securing devices Figure 10: Spatial coordinates of a securing device

   2.1  Direct lashing   2.1.1  Securing against sliding   2.1.2  Securing against tipping   2.2  Tie-down lashing   2.2.1  Securing against sliding   2.2.2  Securing against tipping