Candy sugar [German version]

Table of contents

General:
Product information
Packaging
Transport
  Container transport
  Cargo securing


Risk factors and loss prevention:
Temperature Odor
Humidity/Moisture Contamination
Ventilation Mechanical influences
Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health
Gases Shrinkage/Shortage
Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation / Diseases




Product information

Product name

German Kandiszucker
English Candy sugar, sugar candy
French Sucre candi
Spanish Azúcar cande
Scientific Sucrose (C12H22O11)
CN/HS number * 1701 99 90


(* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)



Product description

Candy sugar has its origins in India and Persia. The production of candy sugar was described by Arabic writers in the first half of the 9th century. Large crystals were obtained by cooling supersaturated sugar solutions. In order to accelerate crystallization, confectioners later learnt to immerse small twigs in the solution for the crystals to grow on.

The sugar solution was colored with cochineal and indigo and scented with ambergris or flower essence.

Today, candy sugar is composed of a number of smaller crystals. It is produced by slow crystallization of a vacuum-evaporated sugar solution. Threads, which are intended to prevent the crystals from sinking to the bottom or agglomerating, are clamped in a holder in this solution. The crystals are allowed to grow on the threads to the desired size. This type of candy sugar is also known as thread candy sugar, as the thread generally remains in the crystal.

Candy sugar without threads is obtained by "seeding" with sugar crystals.

The following types of candy sugar are distinguished:

White candy sugar: produced from refined sugar solution
Yellow or brown candy sugar: produced from refined sugar solution and colored with caramel.

Candy sugar is of higher purity than refined sugar.


Quality / Duration of storage

The most important quality feature is the purity of the sugar.

Moist, dirty or damaged cartons must not be loaded.

Subject to compliance with the appropriate temperature, moisture/humidity and ventilation conditions, the maximum duration of storage is not a limiting factor as regards transport.


Intended use

Candy sugar is primarily used for sweetening hot drinks.


Figures

(Click on the individual Figures to enlarge them.)

Photo, candy sugar

Figure 1
Photo, candy sugar

Figure 2
Photo, candy sugar

Figure 3
Photo, candy sugar

Figure 4
Photo, candy sugar

Figure 5
Photo, candy sugar

Figure 6



Countries of origin

This Table shows only a selection of the most important countries of origin and should not be thought of as exhaustive.

Europe EU countries, Poland, Czech Republic and Russia
Africa EU countries, Poland, Czech Republic and Russia
Asia India, China, Philippines
America Cuba, Brazil, USA, Mexico, Argentina
Australia Australia


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Packaging

Candy sugar is packaged in paperboard cartons.

The packaging size should be so selected that the dimensions of the individual area modules or area module multiples are conformed to the conventional pallet sizes (800x1200 mm and 1000x1200 mm) and cargo units may thus be produced.

Marking of packages
Mark07.gif (2224 bytes)

Keep dry
Mark03.gif (1911 bytes)

Top
Mark04.gif (3269 bytes)

Keep away
from heat
(solar radiation)


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Transport

Symbols

Symbol, general cargo

General cargo



Means of transport

Ship, truck, railroad


Container transport

Standard containers, subject to compliance with limits for water content of goods, packaging and container flooring.


Cargo handling

It is also imperative that the product be protected from moisture (rain, snow) during cargo handling, as the packaging (paperboard cartons) is extremely sensitive to moisture and loses stability. Moisture may additionally degrade product quality (mold, fermentation).

The cartons are relatively sensitive to mechanical stresses. Incorrect handling, e.g. throwing the packages, may result in damage.


Stowage factor

1.66 m3/t (cartons) [1]


Stowage space requirements

Cool, dry


Segregation

Marker pen, oil crayon


Cargo securing

Because of its impact- and pressure-sensitivity, packages of this cargo must be secured in such a way that they are prevented from damaging each other. Spaces between packages or pallets must be filled, to prevent slippage or tipping. By selecting the correct packaging size or cargo unit (area module or area module multiple), holds can be tightly loaded (without spaces).


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Risk factors and loss prevention

RF Temperature

Favorable travel temperature range: no lower limit - 25°C [1]

Caking phenomena are promoted by relatively high temperatures (> 25°C). Do not stow candy sugar near heat sources.

Temperature variations should, as far as possible, be avoided as the resultant release of water vapor may result in agglomeration (sticking together).


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RF Humidity/Moisture

Candy sugar requires particular humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC IV) (storage climate conditions).

Designation Humidity/water content Source
Relative humidity 70% [1]
Water content max. 0.05% [1]
Maximum equilibrium moisture content 65% [1]


Relative humidities > 70% result in agglomeration (sticking together), syrup formation, tackiness and mold and yeast growth.

At below 50%, candy sugar may become hard and cake.

Sugar must be protected from all forms of moisture as moistening may result in mold growth and fermentation.


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RF Ventilation

Candy sugar requires particular humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC IV) (storage climate conditions).

Candy sugar does not normally need to be ventilated. However, if the relative humidity in the hold or container is so high that there is a risk of damage to the product or packaging (cartons) due to the formation of cargo sweat or condensation on the hold/container walls, the following ventilation measures should be implemented:

Recommended ventilation conditions: air exchange rate: 6 changes/hour (airing)


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RF Biotic activity

Candy sugar displays 3rd order biotic activity.

It belongs to the class of goods in which respiration processes are suspended, but in which biochemical, microbial and other decomposition processes still proceed.


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RF Gases

No risk.


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RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion

No risk.


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RF Odor

Active behavior Candy sugar has a very slight, pleasant odor.
Passive behavior Candy sugar is highly sensitive to any foreign odors and should thus not be stored together with odor-emitting products.



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RF Contamination

Active behavior Candy sugar does not cause contamination.
Passive behavior Candy sugar is sensitive to dirt, fats and oils. The holds or containers must accordingly be clean and in a thoroughly hygienic condition before loading.



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RF Mechanical influences

Because of its mechanical sensitivity, candy sugar must be treated with appropriate care during cargo handling, transport and storage. Mechanical stresses during cargo handling/transport may, for example, destroy the adhesive strips or dent the carton walls and edges. This may readily result in breakage and abrasion (fragmentation damage) of the candy sugar.


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RF Toxicity / Hazards to health

No risk.


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RF Shrinkage/Shortage

Weight loss due to the release of water vapor or the like does not occur.


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RF Insect infestation / Diseases

Candy sugar may suffer depreciation as the result of infestation by rats, mice, ants, flies and silverfish.


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