Yarns [German version]

Table of contents

General:
Product information
Packaging
Transport
  Container transport
  Cargo securing


Risk factors and loss prevention:
Temperature Odor
Humidity/Moisture Contamination
Ventilation Mechanical influences
Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health
Gases Shrinkage/Shortage
Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation / Diseases




Product information

Product name

German Garne
English Yarns
French Filés
Spanish Hilos
CN/HS number * from 50 ff. to 70 ff.


(* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)



Product description

Yarns are filamentous textile products produced by mechanical spinning processes, the products being classed:

1. by material:

spinnable vegetable fibers (cotton, flax, hemp, jute etc.)
animal fibers (wool, silk)
manmade fibers (viscose, nylon etc.)

2. by spinning method:

carded yarn
worsted yarn
combed yarn
teased yarn
bourette yarn

3. by fineness


Quality / Duration of storage

Extended exposure to light puts natural and manmade fibers at risk due to photomechanical degradation processes; natural silk, polyamide fibers, jute and ramie are particularly sensitive.


Intended use

Yarns are further processed by doubling, weaving, machine knitting, for sewing or knitting purposes and for needlework.


Figures

(Click on the individual Figures to enlarge them.)

Figure 1

Figure 1
Figure 2

Figure 2
Figure 3

Figure 3



Countries of origin

Yarns are today transported worldwide from and to all continents.


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Packaging

Yarns are shipped in containers on spools or as skeins, principally in folding cartons but also in bales (sometimes strapped with metal strapping), bags and boxes. They must be so packaged as to ensure that the spools do not chafe against each other or against the packaging, as this would result in the loss of whole spools. Skeins must be so secured as to prevent them from coming undone.

Marking of packages
Mark07.gif (2224 bytes)

Keep dry
Mark02.gif (2816 bytes)

Use no hooks



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Transport

Symbols

Symbol, general cargo

General cargo



Means of transport

Ship, truck, railroad, aircraft


Container transport

Transport in standard containers , subject to compliance with lower limits for water content of goods, packaging and flooring.


Cargo handling

In damp weather (rain, snow), the cargo must be protected from moisture, since yarns are strongly hygroscopic and readily absorb moisture. No hooks of any kind should be used, since they may very easily cause damage.


Stowage factor

1.33 - 12.26 m³/t (corrugated board cartons) [1]
1.70 - 9.10 m³/t (bales/cloth) [1]
1.50 - 5.50 m³/t (boxes) [1]



Stowage space requirements

The product must be stowed away from heat sources in clean, dry holds (containers).


Segregation

Marker pen/oil crayon, slip or label bearing product data and/or bar code.


Cargo securing

The cargo is to be stowed in such a way that the bales or cartons do not slip and become damaged during transport. Sharp-edged steel components must be covered with wooden dunnage, while the stack pressure is absorbed by dense intermediate layers of wooden dunnage.


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Risk factors and loss prevention

RF Temperature

Yarns require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Favorable travel temperature range: 18 - 25°C [1]

Optimum travel temperature: 20°C [1]


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RF Humidity/Moisture

Yarns require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Designation Humidity/water content Source
Relative humidity 65 - 70% [1]
Water content 10 - 15% [1]
Maximum equilibrium moisture content 70% [1]


Yarns are strongly hygroscopic (hygroscopicity), i.e. moisture (seawater, rain, condensation water) may cause mustiness, mildew stains and mold growth. Cargo handlers must not contaminate the goods (drinking water, urine).

Paper yarns rapidly lose strength when stored under damp conditions and are very prone to mold.


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RF Ventilation

Yarns require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Recommended ventilation conditions: air exchange rate: 6 changes/hour (airing), if the dew point of the external air is lower than the dew point of the hold air.


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RF Biotic activity

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Gases

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion

The goods are liable to catch fire. All smoking is prohibited.


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RF Odor

Active behavior Yarns do not release any odor.
Passive behavior Yarns are sensitive to unpleasant/pungent odors.



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RF Contamination

Active behavior Yarns are a very clean cargo.
Passive behavior Yarns must be stowed away from fats/oils, acids and contaminating and dust-producing goods.



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RF Mechanical influences

If spools rub together or chafe against the packaging, whole spools may be lost.


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RF Toxicity / Hazards to health

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Shrinkage/Shortage

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Insect infestation / Diseases

Do not stow yarns directly together with foodstuffs and animal feed or hides/furs, as pests may mistakenly migrate to the yarns and damage them.


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