Waste paper [German version]

Table of contents

General:
Product information
Packaging
Transport
  Container transport
  Cargo securing


Risk factors and loss prevention:
Temperature Odor
Humidity/Moisture Contamination
Ventilation Mechanical influences
Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health
Gases Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft
Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation / Diseases




Product information

Product name

German Altpapier
English Waste paper
French  
Spanish Papel reciclable
CN/HS number * 4707 ff.


(* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)



Product description

Waste paper is a secondary raw material (for use in pulping), which may be reused, e.g. in the production of gray chip. It consists of clean rejects/trimmings from paper factories, but may also comprise household waste and waste from a very wide range of economic sectors.

Waste paper comes from printing works, paper processing plants, department stores, self-service stores, homes etc.

It is treated as follows:

  1. The waste paper is pulped and defibered in a pulper.

  2. It is cleaned, i.e. extraneous substances are removed.

  3. The printing inks are removed by deinking. The printing inks are dissolved out of the fibers by water, sodium hydroxide solution, soap and air using the flotation process. Assisted by soap, the air bubbles gather around the printing inks and rise to the surface where the deinking foam is skimmed off.

  4. After cleaning and refining, it arrives at the pulp proportioning system, where it is processed into light-colored grades of paper.

Treatment flowchart

Figure 1: Waste paper treatment flowchart



Quality / Duration of storage

The more thoroughly sorted is the waste paper, the higher is its quality. Waste paper from printing works and corrugated board producers, the wholesale trade and warehouses is of particularly good quality, as its dirt content is relatively small.

From the point of view of quality, waste paper types are divided into light-colored grades (from printing and publication products, office paper, documents) and dark-colored grades (from packaging materials). Light-colored grades are used in graphic and sanitary papers and dark-colored grades are processed into packaging papers and cardboard.


Intended use

Waste paper is used to produce:

Paper, cardboard and paperboard for packaging
Sanitary paper
Special paper
Graphic paper

A new use for waste paper is as a structural material for recyclable transport pallets, which weigh only 10 kg but can take loads of up to 1.5 metric tons.


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Packaging

Waste paper is predominantly pressed into bales and strapped with wire for transport and storage.


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Transport

Symbols

Symbol, general cargo

General cargo



Means of transport

Ship, truck, railroad


Container transport

Transport in standard containers , subject to compliance with limits for water content of goods, packaging and flooring.


Cargo handling

It is imperative that the goods be protected from moisture (rain, snow etc.) during cargo handling, as the risk of spontaneous combustion may be increased.

During cargo handling, the bales must not be lifted by the strapping, as this may break.


Stowage factor

4.10 m³/t (bales, unpackaged, wire-strapped, from Cuba) [1]
2.69 m³/t (old newspapers, bales unpackaged) [1]



Stowage space requirements

dry


Cargo securing

The cargo is to be secured in such a way that the bales or strapping are not damaged. Undamaged strapping is essential to maintain compression of the bales during transport.

For cargo securing, see also chapter entitled Paper trade in the GDV Cargo Securing Manual.

For further information see also the chapters entitled

"Basic physical principles of cargo securing",
"Road vehicles, selection, equipping and loading capacity",
"Cargo securing materials"



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Risk factors and loss prevention

RF Temperature

Waste paper requires particular humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Most favorable travel temperature range: no limit [1]


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RF Humidity/Moisture

Waste paper requires particular humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Designation Humidity/water content Source
Relative humidity 65 - 70% [1]
Water content 6 - 12% [1]
Maximum equilibrium moisture content 70% [1]


Waste paper is hygroscopic and must be protected from all moisture, such as rain, snow, condensation water, seawater and extremely high levels of relative humidity. Exposure to moisture may lead to spontaneous combustion.


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RF Ventilation

Waste paper requires particular humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Recommended ventilation conditions: air exchange rate: 6 changes/hour (airing), if the dew point of the external air is lower than the dew point of the hold air.


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RF Biotic activity

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Gases

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion

Waste paper is a combustible material, which must be protected from flying sparks, naked lights and lit cigarettes. Smoking must be strictly prohibited.

When stacked, waste paper has a tendency to heat-induced spontaneous combustion.

Waste paper which has been compressed into compacted bales, is impregnated with unsaturated oils and is not completely dry constitutes a fire hazard and must be classified as a substance from class 4.2 of the IMDG Code or ADR. Waste paper classed as a hazardous material must be transported in accordance with the relevant recommendations and conventions (in this case, the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal 1989). 

Unlike CO2, water and foam cause considerable cargo losses due to wetting and swelling when used as fire-extinguishing agents.


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RF Odor

Active behavior Waste paper does not normally release any odor. However, it may smell slightly unpleasant if contaminated.
Passive behavior It is insensitive to foreign odors.



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RF Contamination

Active behavior Waste paper is normally a clean cargo. However, contamination may occur as a result of paper shreds and abrasion.
Passive behavior Even if waste paper is to undergo washing during further processing, it should still be stowed away from fats/oils, colorants and contaminating goods.



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RF Mechanical influences

During cargo handling, the bales must not be lifted by the strapping, as this may break.


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RF Toxicity / Hazards to health

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Insect infestation / Diseases

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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