Automobiles [German version]

Table of contents

General:
Product information
Packaging
Transport
  Container transport
  Cargo securing


Risk factors and loss prevention:
Temperature Odor
Humidity/Moisture Contamination
Ventilation Mechanical influences
Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health
Gases Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft
Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation
    Additional information




Product information

Product name

German Personenkraftwagen, Autos, Automobile
English Automobiles, Motorcars
French Voitures
Spanish Coches
CN/HS number * 8703 ff.


(* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)



Product description

Pursuant to §18, para. 8f StVZO (German road traffic licensing regulations) an automobile is a motor vehicle suitable and intended by design and equipment for transporting no more than 9 persons including the driver of the vehicle.

Automobiles are generally powered by an internal combustion engine. They may, however also  be powered by electrical energy, e.g. by rechargeable batteries, by conversion of chemical energy or by solar cells. A combination of different types of power unit or energy sources is known as a hybrid drive system.


Quality / Duration of storage

Before acceptance by the intended means of transport, the vehicles must be thoroughly checked to verify whether they meet the requirements for safe transport. In particular, it is essential to ensure that

doors, windows and tank fillers are securely closed,
the tires are pumped up to a sufficient air pressure,
the windshield washer contains sufficient water,
external damage has been recorded and shown on the shipping documents,
installed or dismantled accessories (e.g. radios, external mirrors) and spare parts are complete and in good condition,
the fuel tank contains the appropriate quantity of fuel for cargo handling activities (no more than 3 liters),
the automobile's battery is functional and installed in an upright position,
or the car battery which had been disconnected for extended intermediate storage has been reconnected.


Normally, duration of storage is not a limiting factor as regards transport and storage life.


(Click on the individual Figures to enlarge them.)



Figure 0a


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Intended use

Depending upon their design or equipment, automobiles are used for transporting people or objects.


Countries of origin

This Table shows only a selection of the most important countries of origin and should not be thought of as exhaustive.

Europe Germany, Spain, Italy, Great Britain, France, Sweden
Africa  
Asia Republic of Korea, Japan
America USA, Canada, Mexico
Australia  


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Packaging

Newly manufactured automobiles are covered with films, foam cushioning or plastic moldings at sensitive points, such as the bumpers, lights, exterior mirrors, hood, driver's door, trunk lid, fenders, spoilers, roof (convertible roof), wheel rims and hubcaps, or are provided with an all over wax or acrylic coating.

Plastic shrouds, which cover the entire vehicle and are lined with felt, are also being tested. In order to permit access to the vehicle, these shrouds are provided with zip closures in the area of the hood, the doors and the trunk.

Interior fittings (seats, rear view mirror, high grade trim, gear shift and steering wheel) are often covered with protective shrouds or adhesive films. Dismantled accessories, packaged in cartons or film, should be placed in the trunk.

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Figure 11
 



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Transport

Symbols

Symbol, general cargo

General cargo



Means of transport

Ship (roll-on/roll-off ship, special ro-ro ship (car carrier), container/ro-ro ship, ferry), truck, railroad, aircraft



Figure 11a


Figure 11b


Figure 11c

Container transport

If appropriately secured, valuable and individually shipped vehicles may be loaded in a standard container. For export to countries which apply high levels of customs duty to luxury goods, automobiles are shipped in completely knocked down (CKD) or semi/part knocked down (SKD, PKD) form. In this case, the package sizes for the individual components are adapted precisely to the container in which they are transported, which means that the cargo is secured by tight fit.


Cargo handling

Automobiles are primarily transferred onto the means of transport on their own wheels via ramps (roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro) ships, ferries and combined container/ro-ro ships, car carriers, auto freight cars).



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Figure 13
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Figure 14a
 


Conventional loading (lift-on/lift-off (lo-lo)) is rare today or is used only for used vehicles. Special automobile gear for crane handling must be used for conventional loading and care must be taken to ensure that the brakes on the vehicle are not applied as severe vibration and oblique hoisting may cause the vehicle to rotate around the blocked wheels.

Damage often arises due to incorrect cargo handling during loading and unloading of the means of transport and while the vehicles are being driven around the storage lot (speeding, collisions). Vehicles which, as a result of flat batteries or lack of fuel, come to a standstill during cargo handling and the loading of which can be delayed no longer due to the stowage plan, are, as a stopgap measure, "shunted" into the desired stowage place with vehicles cushioned with rubber tires.

During loading and unloading operations, care should be taken to ensure that

the angle of the loading ramps is no more than 12° so that the vehicle underbody or spoilers are not damaged (if necessary, such sections should be approached at an oblique angle),
the vehicle windshields provide an unobstructed view (essential),
experienced drivers are used,
handling personnel wear special working clothes without metal fastenings or zips,
instructions from the loading supervisor are followed to the letter,
right-hand drive or left-hand drive vehicles are appropriately stowed so that once the vehicle has been parked the driver can get out on the still unobstructed side.


Stowage factor

Variable depending upon vehicle type.


Stowage space requirements

Cool, good ventilation, below deck for maritime transport.

The following general criteria should also be taken into account:

Admissible deck and ramp loads must not be exceeded.
The stowage spaces for maritime transport must be protected from direct ingress of seawater and, if possible, low acceleration forces should apply (e.g. stowage spaces amidships).
Stowage spaces must be free from grease, oil and other friction-reducing substances.
Stowage spaces in which the deck surfaces may permanently be at high temperatures (e.g. due to heated tanks) must be insulated with wooden dunnage to ensure that the tires suffer no damage.
Vehicles are generally fitted with suspension, which means that they may vibrate in the vertical and horizontal axes, so care must be taken to ensure that the spacing left between the individual vehicles is sufficient to prevent them from damaging each other due to their differing vibration behavior and to allow appropriate cargo securing to be applied. In maritime transport, care must in particular be taken to ensure that the spacing to the front is no less than 30 cm and that to the sides is no less than 10 cm.
Vehicles must not be transported on the ship's deck without the shipper's knowledge.


Segregation

Oil crayon, slip bearing vehicle data and possibly bar code visible through windshield.


Cargo securing

The manufacturer's loading instructions must be complied with.

Cargo securing is basically dependent upon the available securing means, the weight and type of vehicle and where it is stowed.

The means of transport must be equipped for lashing vehicles correctly (lashings, lashing points, such as lashing rings and lashing pots and the like). When lashing belts are used, care must be taken to ensure that the same number of lashing belts are used at both front and rear. If no specific loading instructions are available, such lashings are attached to special lashing rings or to the vehicle's towing gear. If no or insufficient lashing rings are available, the lashings may be attached to the springs, axles and, under certain circumstances, to the chassis or vehicle frame. Lashings must not, however, be fixed to wheels, rims or bumpers.

Figure 15

Figure 15



Cargo securing examples:

Ro-ro ship, special ro-ro ship (car carrier):

Use lashing belts (e.g. special automobile lashing belts with lever ratchet tensioners) to absorb horizontal forces in order to avoid slippage and tipping. In maritime transport, lashing belts should be tight, but not highly prestressed. The vehicles are generally secured with 2 lashing belts to the front and 2 to the rear (see Fig. 16).

Figure 16

Figure 16
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Figure 16a
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Figure 16b


On inclined surfaces (ramps) and in the case of stowage athwartships, wheel chocks are additionally used and the number of front and rear lashing belts on the must should be increased appropriately (see Fig. 17).


Conventional ship or container:

Use lashing belts together with wheel chocks; in the case of stowage athwartships and on inclined surfaces, the number of front and rear lashing belts on the vehicle must be increased appropriately. In maritime transport, lashing belts should be tight, but not highly prestressed.

Figure 17

Figure 17
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Figure 18



Truck or trailer:

In the case of transport on double-decker vehicles or other vehicles suitable for transporting automobiles, lockable stirrups or wheel chocks and 3-point lashing belts are used. A distinction is drawn between forwards loaded vehicles and those loaded contrary to the direction of travel. The relevant securing measures are shown in Figures 19 to 23 below.

Figure 19

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Figure 22

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Figure 23


Automobiles transported as general cargo on a flatbed truck must be adequately secured with lashing belts and wheel chocks (see Fig. 24).

Figure 24

Figure 24



Railroad:

When block trains are used, lockable stirrups or wheel chocks are used, with at least one wheel at the front and one at the back being secured with stirrups.

Figure 25

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Figure 27


When vehicles are transported as general cargo on flat freight cars or in freight cars, they must be secured with lashing belts and wheel chocks to withstand switching impacts of 4 times acceleration due to gravity.

Figure 28

Figure 28



Aircraft:

Use stackable transport racks together with air freight pallets, onto which the vehicles are secured with multipart special belts on all four wheels.

Figure 29

Figure 29
Figure 29a

Figure 29a



General:

Both when applying and subsequently removing cargo securing materials, appropriate care must be taken to avoid damaging the vehicle.

Care must furthermore be taken to ensure that

only wheel chocks or stirrups of sufficient height (height between 1/8 and 1/6 of wheel diameter) which may be properly locked in place are used,
hooks are only tensioned, and not stressed to bending,
no damaged belts or the like are used,
belts are not twisted.


If the vehicle is so equipped, its parking brake must be applied and 1st gear engaged or, in the case of vehicles with an automatic transmission, park position selected. The steering lock must be engaged.

Incorrect securing of vehicles on the means of transport easily results in damage.

Reference should definitely be made to the loading instructions issued by VDI - The Association of Engineers and the German automobile industry association (VDA).

For further information see also the chapters entitled

"Basic physical principles of cargo securing",
"Road vehicles, selection, equipping and loading capacity" and
"Cargo securing materials"

in the GDV Cargo Securing Manual.


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Risk factors and loss prevention

RF Temperature

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Humidity/Moisture

The interior fittings of vehicles may in particular be damaged (rust, mold, discoloration) by extended exposure to excessive moisture, such as excessive relative humidities. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to ventilate the interior and dissipate any moisture by opening the windows, as there is otherwise a risk of rust and mold growth.

However, when in the open, the windows and doors of the vehicles should be closed in order to prevent penetration by rain water.


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RF Ventilation

Automobiles require particular ventilation conditions (SC I) (storage climate conditions).

Ventilation is necessary in order to eliminate contaminants which are detrimental to health and which form explosive mixtures in conjunction with air. This problem arises in particular with ro-ro shipment, where dissipation of the exhaust gases must be ensured. Ships must have highly effective ventilation systems in order to ensure a constant supply of fresh air during and after loading or unloading operations. This also applies to ferries if the exhaust gases reach areas used by passengers.

Good ventilation is necessary in ocean-going vessels in order to avoid rust and mold growth (see risk factor Humidity/Moisture).


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RF Biotic activity

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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Gases

Flammable gases may be released by forced venting of the vehicle's fuel tank. The tank should accordingly only be filled with sufficient fuel (approx. 3 liters) for the vehicle to be driven at the terminal and for cargo handling purposes.

Exhaust gases released during loading and unloading operations must be dissipated by appropriate ventilation.


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RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Odor

Active behavior Loading and unloading operations on ro-ro ships and ferries may result in an odor nuisance in the hold which must be eliminated by suitable ventilation measures.
Passive behavior Automobiles are not generally odor-sensitive. However, odor tainting, in particular of the upholstery, has occurred in ports due to adjacent cargo handling areas for goods with a strong odor, such as for example fish meal.



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RF Contamination

Active behavior In order to prevent leakage of oil or brake fluid, the vehicles must not be kept on the truck (car carrier) at an excessively steep angle.
Passive behavior Risk of soiling of paintwork e.g. by industrial fallout, paint mist from shipyard operations, sand storms. During railroad transport, sparks from the overhead power line may cause burn damage to paintwork.

A wax or acrylic coating or adhesive films may be applied to protect the paint surface from more serious soiling. Removal of snow and ice before and after loading must be carried out with care. Coarse particles of dust and dirt stuck to waxed windshields may cause serious scratching when the windshield washer is operated. Wax or acrylic coatings must thus not be applied onto windshields.

Modern cleaning methods make it possible to diminish the losses arising from large areas of damage to paintwork, e.g. by metal dust, because the replacement of whole bodywork parts is avoided.

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Figure 32


The working clothes of cargo handling personnel must be clean so that the interior fittings of the vehicles are not soiled.



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RF Mechanical influences

In order to avoid damage by mechanical stresses, it is essential that stowing and lashing on the means of transport are performed carefully and in accordance with instructions.

Possible damage includes: damage to paintwork, scratching, damage due to bending, denting, glass breakage, fine (hairline) scratches or flying stones. The relevant areas should be protected by adhesive films or cushioning material.

Figure 33

Figure 33
Figure 33a

Figure 33a


Exhibition vehicles or high-value automobiles may be protected from flying stones or other external influences by means of closed double-decker vehicles. Such carriers are also used for prototypes which the manufacturer wishes to keep secret.

Figure 34

Figure 34
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Figure 35


During railroad transport, paintwork may be damaged by sandblasting on bridges. Also during railroad transport, sparks from the overhead power line may cause burn damage to paintwork.

In order to avoid hail damage, it is advisable to erect hail nets at particularly at-risk storage lots.

Handling personnel should wear special clothing without metal fastenings.

Vehicles should be kept in marked parking areas during storage and intermediate storage. If the parking area is disorganized, vehicles may be overlooked and damaged.

Comply with the manufacturer's stowing and loading instructions.


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RF Toxicity / Hazards to health

If ventilation is inadequate, exhaust gases may be harmful to human health. Ships must accordingly  have highly effective ventilation systems in order to ensure a constant supply of fresh air during and after loading or unloading operations and dissipate any exhaust gases which arise.


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RF Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft

In order to avoid the risk of deliberate damage by vandalism (e.g. stone throwing), the vehicles should be kept in intermediate storage only in guarded and fenced storage lots. In order to reduce the risk of entire vehicles being stolen, vehicle keys should be left inside the vehicle only in guarded and fenced storage lots. However, separate storage is better.

In order to reduce the risk of theft of easily removed, valuable vehicle parts (radios etc.), the latter should be shipped separately.


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RF Insect infestation

While on storage lots, insects (e.g. ants) may mistakenly find their way into vehicles or martens may damage the engine compartments.


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Additional information

Risks arise at the following points in the transport chain:

in the factory storage facility (after passing through the counting station in the manufacturing plant)
loading onto truck, railroad or inland waterway vessel and transfer
unloading at port or destination
storage at the port
loading into ocean-going vessel (stevedores)
voyage in ocean-going vessel
unloading at port of destination
intermediate storage at port of destination
loading for onward transport and transfer
unloading at final destination until placement in storage


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