Wood species [German version]



Name Geographic distribution Comments
Abura, Bahia
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • East Africa
  • low durability
  • reasonably fungus- but not insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • blue (oxidative) discoloration possible due to contact with iron/steel
  • freshly unbarked wood has tendency to split at edges
  • rafted blocks often contain nails and other metallic inclusions and thus depreciative oxidative discoloration
Acariquara
  • South America
  • West Africa
  • particularly teredo-resistant
  • salt-water resistant
  • frost-resistant
  • used for breakwater construction
African mahogany, Khaya Mahagoni, acajou d'Afrique
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • East Africa
  • roundwood with and without bark
  • sapwood: low durability (blue stain)
  • heartwood: good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis
  • mahogany is susceptible to stains
White mahogany, acajou blanc
  • West Africa
  • good durability
  • reasonably susceptible to fungal and insect attack (blue stain in sapwood)
  • mahogany is susceptible to stains
African Padouk, sandalwood
  • West Africa
  • roundwood, dressed or undressed
  • heartwood: very good durability
  • fungus- and insect-resistant, also termite-resistant
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis
  • strong aromatic odor, stow away from odor-sensitive products
African canarium, Aiele
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • East Africa
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack (bluish-black discoloration due to poor storage, blue stain)
  • not teredo-resistant
  • severe frost damage in winter
Ako
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • not teredo-resistant
  • due to low durability, ako should be obtained only from reliable consignors, who guarantee quick loading and protective chemical treatment
Alerce, Patagonian cypress
  • South America
  • very good durability
  • heartwood: fungus- and insect-resistant
  • also supplied as hewn beams
Amarante, violet wood
  • South America
  • roundwood, dressed
  • good durability
  • heartwood: fungus- and insect-resistant
  • reasonably teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes, dermatitis, faintness and general unwell feeling
  • wood becomes violet on exposure to air
American mahogany, Baywood, acajou d'Amérique
  • South America
  • Central America
  • good durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • reasonably termite-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis, impaired general state of health
Andiroba
  • South America
  • Central America
  • good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • termite-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
Angélique
  • South America
  • good to very good durability
  • resistant to fungi and insects
  • reasonably teredo-resistant
  • also square-hewn beams (ram piles)
Aningeria, Aningré blanc
  • West Africa
  • sapwood: low durability (blue stain), not insect-resistant
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • dark oxidative discoloration in parts
Aspen
  • Europe
  • West Asia
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • also to frost splitting
Assacu, Hura wood
  • South America
  • Central America
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack (blue stain, rotting, worm grooves)
Avodire
  • West Africa
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack, in particular to blue stain
  • not teredo-resistant
Ekki, Azobé, Bongossi
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • very good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, also termite-resistant
  • teredo-resistant
  • Ekki is one of the hardest, most resistant wood species
Baboen
  • South America
  • Central America
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • heartwood somewhat more durable than sapwood
  • requires quick hauling out after felling, rapid shipment
  • chemical roundwood protection necessary
Balsawood, Balsa, Corkwood
  • South America
  • Central America
  • very low durability
  • extremely susceptible to fungal and insect attack, therefore treat chemically, or at least unbark, immediately after felling
  • paraffin treatment to protect against moisture absorption
  • lightest commercial wood, lighter than cork
  • must be stowed very carefully due to risk of breakage
  • has low abrasion- and pressure-resistance, so handle carefully
  • no other cargo should be stowed on blocks
Sycamore
  • Europe
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
Bété, Mansonia
  • West Africa
  • roundwood with or without bark
  • sometimes dressed
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood: good durability, reasonably fungus- but not insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis, nosebleeds, sore throats, nausea, dizziness
Birch
  • Europe
  • Asia
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • decays very rapidly
  • in the case of roundwood without bark with small central trunk diameter, frost splitting may lead to total loss
Pear-tree
  • Central Europe
  • Southern Europe
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack (splitting, rotting, fungal discoloration, worm grooves)
Black walnut, American walnut
  • North-eastern America
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood: reasonably good
  • resistant to fungi and insects
Blue gum, Eucalyptus, Jarra wood, Australian Mahogany
  • Southern Australia
  • good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis
Bahia Rosewood, Pinkwood, Bois de rose
  • South America
  • roundwood, dressed
  • good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • oxidative discoloration on contact with metals, in particular iron/steel
Guarea, Bossé, Acajou bossé
  • West Africa
  • sapwood: low durability (blue stain)
  • heartwood: good durability, fungus-resistant, reasonably insect-resistant, not termite- or teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes
Bubinga, Kevazingo
  • West Africa
  • roundwood, dressed
  • sapwood: low durability, susceptible to fungal and insect attack (rotting)
  • heartwood very good, fungus- and insect-resistant
Cedar, Cedro, Cedrela
  • South America
  • Central America
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood reasonably resistant to fungi and insects, reasonably termite-resistant
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes and dermatitis
  • discoloration of wood on contact with metals
  • has penetrating odor
Champak
  • South-east Asia
  • low durability
  • extremely susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • not teredo-resistant
Chikrassy, Yimma
  • South-east Asia
  • South Asia
  • good to moderate durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
Cocobolo
  • South America
  • roundwood, dressed
  • very good durability
  • heartwood: fungus- and insect-resistant
  • oxidative discoloration on contact with metals, in particular iron/steel
West-Indian Locust, Courbaril
  • Central America
  • South America
  • good to very good durability
  • reasonably resistant to fungi and insects
  • not teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis
Dahoma, Dabéma
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • heartwood: very good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • reasonably termite-resistant
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes due to wood dust
  • contact with iron/steel causes oxidative discoloration of damp wood
Paldao, Dao
  • South-east Asia
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal attack
  • heartwood: reasonably insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
African walnut, Tigerwood, Dibétou
  • West Africa
  • low durability
  • not resistant to fungi and insects
  • not teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis
  • blocks with raft hooks always subject to major discoloration
Douglas fir, Douglas spruce, Oregon Pine
  • North America
  • good durability
  • heartwood: almost fungus- and insect-resistant (frost splitting, rotting, worm grooves)
  • damp wood tends to stain
Figured macore
  • West Africa
  • good durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, also termite-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • fresh roundwood sensitive to frost
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes
Doussié, Afzelia, Apa, Aligna
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • good durability
  • reasonably termite-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • end protection recommended
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes
Ebony, Macassar ebony
  • South-east Asia
  • roundwood, dressed
  • good durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis and irritation of mucous membranes
  • due to high value, pieces must be carefully counted during cargo handling
Rowan, mountain ash
  • North Africa
  • Europe
  • West Asia
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack (oxidative discoloration, rotting, worm grooves)
Sweet chestnut
  • North Africa
  • Western Europe
  • Southern Europe
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood: reasonably fungus-resistant, not insect-resistant, durable in water
  • metal corrosion possible (blue discoloration) at high wood moisture levels
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis
Yew
  • North Africa
  • Western Europe
  • Central Europe
  • Southern Europe
  • very good durability
Oak, English oak, common oak, pedunculate oak
  • Europe
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood: durable
  • end protection and prevention of water ingress are recommended, due to risk of tan stains
  • use rope yarn for segregation, not paint
  • do not load cut lumber with fibrous materials, since planing impossible
Wild Service Tree, Chequers
  • Central Europe
  • Southern Europe
  • low durability
  • durable in dry
  • susceptible to fungal attack
Alstonia, Patternwood, Stoolwood, Emien
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • East Africa
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • not teredo-resistant
  • protective chemical treatment necessary
Ash
  • Europe
  • Asia
  • low durability, especially in open air (oxidative discoloration, rotting, worm grooves, frost splitting)
Erinado, Essessang
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • East Africa
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack (ring shakes, blue stain, rotting, worm grooves)
Yellow Sterculia, Eyong
  • West Africa
  • very low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack (blue stain, rotting, worm grooves)
Faro
  • West Africa
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • not teredo-resistant
  • protective chemical treatment necessary
  • requires quick transport and prompt shipment
  • avoid any extended storage (splitting, blue stain, rotting, worm grooves)
Spruce, Norway spruce
  • Central Europe
  • South-eastern Europe
  • North-eastern Europe
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack (discoloration, rotting)
Idigbo, Framiré
  • West Africa
  • sapwood: low durability, susceptible to fungal and insect attack (blue stain, wet wood liable to yellowing)
  • heartwood: reasonably good durability
  • protective chemical treatment necessary
Silk cotton tree, Fromager, Ceiba
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • East Africa
  • South America
  • Central America
  • South Asia
  • South-east Asia
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • not teredo-resistant
  • protective treatment necessary
  • prompt transport and quick shipment necessary
Guayac, Lignum Vitae
  • South America
  • Central America
  • good durability
  • reasonably fungus-resistant, virtually insect-resistant
  • teredo-resistant
  • water-repellent due to high content of hydrophobing constituents
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes
  • wood is of high value
  • oil- and resin-rich wood
  • very hard
Greenheart, Demerara Greenheart
  • South America
  • very good durability
  • heartwood: fungus-resistant and virtually insect-resistant, termite-resistant
  • teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes, headaches, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, impaired vision, breathing difficulties
  • end protection is recommended
Hickory
  • North-eastern America
  • sapwood: low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack (oxidative discoloration, splitting, also frost splitting, rotting, worm grooves)
  • not teredo-resistant
  • heartwood somewhat more resistant
Adjouaba, Igaganga
  • West Africa
  • roundwood predominantly unbarked
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
Ilomba, Ekom
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • East Africa
  • low durability
  • very susceptible to fungal and insect attack (splitting, blue stain, decay, rotting, worm grooves)
  • roundwood must be protected immediately after felling
  • Ilomba is particularly susceptible to attack
  • at extreme risk of frost splitting, so particular care must be taken during the cold part of the year
Brazilian walnut, Imbuia
  • South America
  • good durability
  • reasonably fungus-resistant
  • only occasional insect infestation
  • end protection necessary
Incense cedar, Eastern red cedar, Pencil cedar
  • North America
  • good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
Iroko, Kambala
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • East Africa
  • roundwood generally dressed
  • very good durability
  • heartwood fungus-resistant, only occasional insect infestation
  • reasonably termite-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes and dermatitis
Albarco, Jequitiba
  • South America
  • good to very good durability
  • darker woods are more resistant to fungal and insect infestation than lighter woods
  • over-stowed woods often exhibit severe splitting
  • load carefully
  • risk of slippage of loaded cargo (veneers) owing to very smooth surface
Kaori
  • South-east Asia
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack (blue stain, rotting, worm grooves)
Pine, Baltic Redwood, Scots Pine
  • Central Europe
  • Northern Europe
  • Eastern Europe
  • heartwood: reasonably durable
  • sapwood: susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • risk of blue discoloration, due to inclusion of sapwood
Cherry
  • Europe
  • West Asia
  • North America
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood somewhat more durable
  • oxidative discoloration on contact with metals
Afrormosia, Kokrodua
  • West Africa
  • good durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, only occasional infestation
  • reasonably teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis
  • iron/steel corrosion due to damp wood
Omu, Heavy Sapele, Kosipo, Candollei
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood (fresh) reasonably resistant to fungi but not insect-resistant
  • good durability when dry
  • fresh woods at risk of frost splitting, so care must be taken when importing during the cold part of the year
Danta, Kotibé
  • West Africa
  • very good durability
  • fungus- and insect-resistant
  • reasonably teredo-resistant
Pterygota
  • West Africa
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • sapwood particularly sensitive to blue stain
  • chemical roundwood protection recommended
Krabak
  • South-east Asia
  • low durability
  • sapwood: susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • heartwood somewhat more resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • requires quick transport and prompt shipment
Larch
  • Central Europe
  • good durability
  • also very durable in water
  • protect wood from direct solar radiation and rain
Laurel
  • South America
  • sapwood and heartwood resistant fungus and insect infestation
  • very sensitive to wood-discoloring fungi
Limba, Afara, Corina
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack (oxidative fungal discoloration, decay, worm grooves)
  • wood protection measures required immediately after felling
  • stow in favorable holds, Limba is particularly susceptible to attack
Lime
  • Europe
  • sapwood and heartwood: low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • end protection necessary for roundwood and cut lumber
Lychee
  • South America
  • low to good durability
Padouk, Maidou
  • South-east Asia
  • roundwood, dressed
  • good durability
  • heartwood reasonably insect-resistant, in particular termite-resistant
  • biologically active wood: bronchial asthma
Makore, Baku
  • West Africa
  • roundwood with and without bark
  • Ghanaian Makoré generally unbarked
  • Ivory Coast Makoré usually with bark
  • good durability
  • sapwood: susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • heartwood: reasonably insect-resistant
  • risk of blue discoloration on contact with metal at high wood moisture levels
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis, irritation of mucous membranes and conjunctivitis
Yellowwood, Mañiu
  • South America
  • low durability, susceptible to fungal and insect attack, not teredo-resistant
Mengkulang
  • South-east Asia
  • roundwood with and without bark
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • not teredo-resistant
Meranti, Red Lauan, Seraya
  • South-east Asia
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • not teredo-resistant
Merawan
  • South-east Asia
  • good durability
  • heartwood: reasonably insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • durable under water
  • avoid direct solar radiation
  • risk of fine surface splitting
Moabi
  • West Africa
  • good durability
  • sapwood: susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, also termite-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes
  • metal corrosion due to damp wood
Mo vang tam
  • South Asia
  • South-east Asia
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • not teredo-resistant
  • requires prompt transport and quick shipment
Nigerian Satinwood, Movingui, Ayan
  • West Africa
  • good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, in particular termite-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • blue stain in sapwood
Mukulungú
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • roundwood always with bark
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood: good durability
  • hardly any fungus and insect infestation, reasonably termite-resistant
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes
Mutenye
  • West Africa
  • good durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • reasonably teredo-resistant
Niangon, Wismore
  • West Africa
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood: good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • contact with iron/steel causes risk of corrosion
Niové
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • good to very good durability
  • fungus-resistant and reasonably insect-resistant
Obeche, Abachi, Samba, Wawa
  • West Africa
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • not teredo-resistant
  • protect green wood immediately after felling
  • Obeche is particularly susceptible to attack
  • biologically active wood: asthmatic conditions
Gaboon, Okume
  • West Africa
  • roundwood solely with bark
  • good durability
  • sapwood: susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, also teredo-resistant
  • reasonably durable under water
  • blue stain and insects predominantly in sapwood
Olon
  • West Africa
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal attack (particularly susceptible to blue stain)
  • reasonably insect-resistant
  • quick transport and prompt shipment are necessary to prevent depreciation, in particular due to blue stain
Omo, Cordia, Ebe
  • West Africa
  • frequently unbarked and dressed
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, probably also termite-resistant
Onzabili, Antrocaryon
  • West Africa
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • chemically protected wood preferred
East-Indian rosewood
  • South Asia
  • roundwood, dressed
  • very good durability
  • insect- and termite-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis
Ovangkol
  • West Africa
  • sapwood: low durability (rotting)
  • heartwood good to very good durability, supposedly fungus-resistant
Assia, Ozigo
  • West Africa
  • sapwood: low durability (blue stain)
  • heartwood: good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
Parana pine, Pino Brasil
  • South America
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • particularly in sapwood
  • most important Brazilian wood species
Parasolier, African corkwood, umbrella tree
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • low durability (blue stain, rotting, worm grooves)
  • felled wood requires quick hauling out
  • chemical protection recommended
Pernambouc, Brasilwood
  • South America
  • roundwood, dressed
  • very good durability
  • heartwood: fungus- and insect-resistant, only occasional infestation
  • reasonably teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis
White peroba, Peroba jaune
  • South America
  • roundwood, dressed
  • good durability
  • sapwood: susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
Red peroba, Peroba rose
  • South America
  • roundwood, dressed
  • good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, only occasional infestation
Persimmon, Possum wood, Virginia date palm
  • North-eastern America
  • low durability
  • the valuable sapwood in particular is susceptible to fungal and insect attack (oxidative discoloration in the form of dark stains, splitting, rotting, worm grooves)
Pitch pine, Ponderosa pine
  • North America
  • heartwood with high apparent density: very good durability
  • heartwood with low apparent density: susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • sapwood products also known as red pine
Plane tree
  • Europe
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • quick to decay
Pyinkado
  • South Asia
  • South-east Asia
  • very good durability
  • heartwood: fungus-, insect- and teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes
Mandioqueira, Quaruba
  • South America
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • not teredo-resistant
  • due to low durability, roundwood protection is necessary in forest and during transport, extended intermediate storage to be avoided
Radiata pine, Monterey pine
  • North America
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
Ramin, Melawis
  • South-east Asia
  • low durability
  • susceptible to blue stain
  • not insect- and teredo-resistant
  • requires rapid transport to coast and quick shipment
  • roundwood must be protected as soon as possible after felling
  • Ramin is particularly susceptible to attack
Chilean beech, Rauli
  • South America
  • good durability
  • susceptible to insect attack
Redwood, Sequoia
  • North America
  • very good durability
  • virtually fungus- and insect-resistant, in particular termite-resistant
  • reasonably teredo-resistant
  • oxidative discoloration
  • frost splitting
  • Redwood is one of the world's best structural lumbers
Brazilian Rosewood, Rio Palisander, Jacaranda
  • South America
  • roundwood, dressed
  • good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • the older is the tree, the more susceptible is the heartwood to attack
Robinia, Black locust
  • North America
  • Europe
  • very durable, even in water
  • generally fungus- and insect-resistant
  • reasonably teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes and dermatitis
  • Robinia is one of the toughest woods, excellent lumber for mining
Horse-chestnut
  • North America
  • Europe
  • Asia
  • sapwood and heartwood: low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • wood-discoloring and wood-destroying fungi cause rapid decay with subsequent pocket rot
European beech
  • Central Europe
  • Southern Europe
  • Western Europe
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • protect roundwood and cut lumber from direct solar radiation
  • monitor wood protection measures continually
American red oak
  • North-eastern America
  • low durability, only durable in dry
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • blue discoloration by metal corrosion possible
  • protect roundwood and cut lumber from rapid drying and from direct solar radiation
Elm
  • West Africa
  • Europe
  • West Asia
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood: reasonably durable
  • frost splitting
  • oxidative discoloration
  • green discoloration due to reaction between iron/steel and tannin
Safukala
  • West Africa
  • sapwood: low durability, sensitive to blue stain fungi and insects
  • heartwood: good durability, reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • oxidative discoloration possible due to contact with metals
Sapele, Sapelli, Aboudikro
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • East Africa
  • roundwood predominantly unbarked, sometimes also dressed
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • blue discoloration possible on contact with metals
Black alder
  • Europe
  • North Africa
  • low durability in open air
  • very good durability under water (fungal discoloration, also oxidative discoloration)
Black poplar
  • Europe
  • low durability
  • sapwood and heartwood: susceptible to fungal and insect attack
Utile, Sipo, Kalungi
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • roundwood predominantly with bark
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, also reasonably termite-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
Sougué
  • Africa
  • moderate durability
  • reasonably teredo- and insect-resistant, however, due to high silicate content
Tali
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • East Africa
  • very good durability
  • fungus- and insect-resistant
  • teredo-resistant
  • biologically active wood: irritation of mucous membranes, general disorders, paralysis
Fir, silver fir
  • Central Europe
  • Southern Europe
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • not teredo-resistant
  • unbarked roundwood felled in sunshine splits very quickly
  • green unbarked wood is rapidly attacked by mold
Tchitola, Tola, Chamfuta
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • roundwood unbarked
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood: good durability
  • reasonably resistant to fungi and insects
  • not teredo-resistant
  • termite-resistant
  • ensure protective chemical treatment
Teak, Djati, Kyun
  • South Asia
  • South-east Asia
  • very good durability
  • heartwood: fungus- and insect-resistant, in particular termite-resistant
  • reasonably teredo-resistant
  • metal corrosion possible due to constituents
  • biologically active wood: dermatitis
  • roundwood generally rafted
  • very valuable wood
  • exudes slight rubbery odor
Gedu Nohor, Tiama, Edinam
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • sapwood: low durability
  • sensitive to attack by blue stain fungus and insects
  • heartwood: reasonably good durability, but no resistance to insects and teredos
  • often has an exceptionally high sapwood content
  • oxidative discoloration on contact with metals
Tola
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • roundwood generally unbarked
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, reasonably termite-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • dressed consignments are preferred due to the high resin content in the sapwood (up to 12%)
Urunday, Kingwood
  • South America
  • roundwood, dressed
  • good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
Walnut
  • Central Europe
  • Southern Europe
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, (oxidative discoloration, frost splitting)
Willow
  • Europe
  • West Asia
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
Hornbeam
  • Europe
  • low durability in open air (oxidative and fungal discoloration, rotting, splitting, worm grooves)
Wengé
  • West Africa
  • roundwood predominantly dressed
  • good durability
  • heartwood reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
Western hemlock
  • North America
  • low durability
  • susceptible to fungal and insect attack
  • reasonably teredo-resistant and durable under water
Western red cedar, giant arborvitae
  • North America
  • very good durability
  • dry wood fungus- and insect-resistant
Eastern white pine, Weymouth pine, Yellow pine
  • North America
  • Central Europe
  • Western Europe
  • good durability (blue stain, rotting, worm grooves)
Yang, Keruing, Kanyin, Dau, Gurjun, In
  • South Asia
  • South-east Asia
  • sapwood: low durability
  • heartwood: good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant
  • susceptible to dry splitting, exudes resin
Zebrawood, Zebrano, Zingana
  • West Africa
  • roundwood, dressed
  • good durability
  • reasonably fungus- and insect-resistant, in particular termite-resistant
  • not teredo-resistant

Table 1: Wood species from [1] (excerpts only)


Designation Geographic distribution Commercial name Comments
Obeche Equatorial West Africa Wawa (Ghana), Obeke (Nigeria), Ayos (Cameroon), Samba, Patalene (Ivory Coast)
  • Mainly roundwood, more rarely cut lumber.
  • Ordinary wood, used in particular for plywood processing and for producing veneers.
  • The wood is very susceptible to insects and fungal attack and must therefore be processed quickly.
Abura Tropical regions of Africa Subala (Ghana), Kofo, Vuku (Nigeria), Voukou (Gabon)
  • Roundwood
  • Abura is not weather-resistant and is therefore used for interior fittings.
  • Susceptibility to insect and fungal attack may be easily avoided by impregnation.
White mahogany Interior of tropical Africa, in particular Ghana and the Ivory Coast Ira, Krala (Ivory Coast), Ahafa (Ghana)
  • Roundwood
  • A wood with low weather-resistance, used in veneer and plywood production.
African pencil cedar East Africa Muterakwa (East Africa), Mukuon, Mhangati (Kenya, Uganda)
  • Roundwood
  • A weather-resistant hardwood for the pencil industry.
African ebony West coast of Africa Ecrila (Gabon), Aborkpor (Nigeria), Mevivi (Cameroon)
  • Roundwood (sapwood removed)
  • A very heavy and hard wood for high-quality cabinet-making.
Agba Tropical West African rainforests Ubelu, Avulu, N'tola, Bolimba
  • Roundwood
  • Structural lumber for indoor and outdoor structures, plywood industry.
Aiele Tropical Africa Elimi (Nigeria), Bediwunua (Ghana), Abeul (Gabon)
  • Roundwood
  • A moderately hard wood, susceptible to weathering, impregnated against fungal and insect attack.
  • Particularly suitable as planed product for internal fittings.
American oak:

white oak
Eastern and Northern regions of USA White oak
  • Cut lumber
  • A hard wood, sensitive to moisture and used by furniture industry.
American oak:

American red oak
South-eastern Canada, North-eastern USA Red oak
  • Cut lumber, rarely roundwood
  • The wood is related to the European oak.
Balsa Central America, northern South America Cuano (Honduras), Cajato (Guatemala), Lano (Venezuela), Palo de balsa (Bolivia)
  • A very soft wood, which is primarily used as insulating material for protection against noise, heat and cold.
Bongossi Throughout West Africa Okoga (Gabon), Eki, Eba (Nigeria), Bokole, Aya, Lifuku
  • Roundwood, planks and occasionally cut lumber
  • A very hard wood, extremely weather-resistant and insensitive to insect infestation.
  • Mainly used in hydraulic engineering.
Bonkonko Throughout West Africa Ako, Fou, Akede (Ivory Coast), False Iroko, Oro (Nigeria), Andoum (Gabon), Log-otsi, Chenchen (Ghana)
  • Roundwood, plywood
  • The wood is soft, susceptible to blue stain and not weather-resistant.
  • It is used as veneer wood and plywood in the furniture industry.
Parana pine Brazil, provinces of Parana and Rio Grande do Sul Parana pine
  • Cut lumber, shaped lumber, veneers
  • A moderately hard, brittle, nonweather-resistant wood for internal fittings.
Bubinga Equatorial West Africa Luole, Waka, Bokongo (Congo), Ovang, Buvenga (Gabon), Essingang (Cameroon)
  • Roundwood
  • A weather-resistant hardwood.
  • Very suitable for veneers and use in the furniture industry.
Carolina Pine USA, in southern Atlantic and Gulf states Bull Pine, Black Pine, Torch Pine
  • Cut lumber
  • Very sensitive to blue stain, used for producing windows and doors.
Figured macore West African rainforest regions Emoi (Ghana), Bobi, Bona, Fela (Ivory Coast), Bassi (Liberia)
  • Roundwood and cut lumber
  • A hard, relatively insensitive wood for furniture production.
Silk cotton tree Central Africa, less frequently Asia and South America Bouma (Gabon), Hounti (Togo), Bentenie (Senegal), Okka (Nigeria), Enia (Ivory Coast)
  • Roundwood
  • A soft, sensitive, low-quality wood for pallet and box manufacture.
Hickory Eastern coast of USA Whiteheart hickory, Hognut hickory
  • Planks, roundwood and cut lumber
  • Used in the furniture industry and in production of work equipment and sports articles.
Iroko West Africa Odum (Ivory Coast), Mandji (Gabon)
  • Roundwood
  • A hard, insensitive wood for quality products.
Khaya Mahagoni West Africa Mahagoni (Ivory Coast, Ghana)
  • Roundwood
  • A hard, insensitive wood, used only for the most demanding applications due to its quality.
Pterygota West Africa Boutoue, Bofoouale (Ivory Coast), Poroposa (Nigeria), Kyere, Awari (Ghana)
  • Planks, cut lumber
  • Wood highly susceptible to blue discoloration, used for furniture production.
Lauan Philippines Red lauan, White lauan
  • Roundwood, cut lumber
  • A wood of averagely moderate hardness, weather resistance depends on region of growth.
  • Mainly used in the furniture industry.
Limba, White Afra West African rainforest regions Framo, Frameri (Ghana), Mulimba (Angola), Frake, Ofram (Ivory Coast)
  • Cut lumber, roundwood
  • Moderately hard wood, sensitive to moisture.
  • Suitable for internal fittings and for plywood and veneer manufacture.
Meranti Indonesia, Malaysia White Meranti, Red Meranti, Yellow Meranti
  • Cut lumber, roundwood
  • Moderately hard wood with average weather-resistance used for furniture and veneer manufacture.
Okumé Gabon, West Africa Ozonga, Angoume, Combo
  • Roundwood
  • Most widely exported African wood.
  • Great sensitivity to moisture and mold.
  • Preferably used in furniture industry.
Oregon Pine USA, Canada Red Fir, Douglas Pine, Canadian Fir
  • Cut lumber
  • Conifer, highly insensitive, for various uses.
Palisander India, also Malaysia Bombay Blackwood
  • Roundwood
  • A hard, insensitive wood for veneer production and quality furniture.
Pitch Pine Eastern coast of USA and Gulf states Pitch Pine
  • Cut lumber
  • Insensitive due to its high resin content.
  • Used wherever pinewood needed.
Radiata pine California (indigenous to USA and Mexico), cultivated in Australia, Chile, New Zealand Radiata pine
  • Low quality roundwood with high sapwood content
  • Very susceptible to fungi and rot, especially when imported from cultivation areas in Chile. As far as is known, the wood is not prestored or treated there, but rather is exported immediately after felling.
Ramin Malaysia, Philippines Ramin
  • Cut lumber and roundwood
  • The wood has tendency to mold growth and blue stain.
  • Processed in furniture and veneer industries.
Utile Tropical West Africa Timbi (Cameroon), Assi (Gabon)
  • Roundwood
  • A moderately hard wood for internal fittings and furniture production.
Teak South-east Asia Teak
  • Roundwood, more rarely cut lumber
  • A hard, weather-resistant, high-quality wood.

Table 2: Wood species


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