Millboard [German version]

Table of contents

Product information
  Container transport
  Cargo securing

Risk factors and loss prevention:
Temperature Odor
Humidity/Moisture Contamination
Ventilation Mechanical influences
Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health
Gases Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft
Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation / Diseases

Product information

Product name

German Vollpappe
English Millboard
French Carton
Spanish Cartón
CN/HS number * 48 ff.

(* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)

Product description

Millboard is the generic term for any solid paperboard which, unlike corrugated board, contains no cavities. The surfaces may be finished by couching, i.e. applying an outer layer made from higher grade raw materials onto the web while it is still wet (to give „lined paperboard“). The properties of millboard may also be improved by adhesive lamination, lining, impregnating or coating. Millboard is made as machine-made board or wet machine board.

Millboard is a flat packaging material which is preferably made from chemical pulp and/or mechanical pulp. Its basis weight is > 600 g/m², i.e. greater than that of paper and cardboard.

According to [62], a distinction is drawn between the following types of paperboard depending upon the raw material used or the intended use:

Wood board: made from wood pulp;
Grayboard: made from waste paper.
Auto panel board: bulky, bituminized paperboard, made from waste paper.
Fine board (hard board): stiff, non-splitting paperboard with a hard surface, generally made from higher grades of waste paper, chemical pulp and textile waste. Types of fine board include bookbinding board, fireboard, jacquard board, gasket board, suitcase board, shoe board, pressboard and punching board.
Roofing felt: paperboard impregnated with tar, bitumen and/or natural asphalt

Intended use

Paperboard is used as packaging board, board for construction purposes (e.g. roofing felt) or other industrial boards (suitcase board, auto panel board etc.).

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Millboard is generally transported in rolls.

When in sheet form, it is packaged in bales, boxes or frames. Bales are often provided with a wooden board above and below and strapped with steel strapping.

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Symbol, general cargo

General cargo

Means of transport

Truck, ship (specially designed for transporting paper), railroad

Container transport

Transport in standard containers , subject to compliance with limits for water content of goods, packaging and flooring.

Cargo handling

It is imperative that the goods be protected from moisture (rain, snow) during cargo handling, as there is a risk of losses caused by swelling and tearing of individual layers.

Incorrect handling during loading and unloading and storage entails the risk of snagging. As a consequence, the paperboard layers become unusable over the depth of the snags. They are then fit merely to be torn off (stripped down) and used as waste paper.

Incorrect cargo handling may result in distortion of rolls (ovalization). Rolls exhibiting marked ovality can no longer be used for printing and have to be rewound.

Cargo handling of rolls should be performed only with special cargo handling gear and forklift trucks with roll clamps.

Stowage factor

2.00 m³/t (rolls, packaged in paper) [1]
1.80 m³/t (bales, wrapped) [1]

Stowage space requirements

Stowage spaces must be clean and dry.


Packing paper

Cargo securing

The cargo is to be secured in such a way that the bales or strapping are not damaged. Undamaged strapping is essential to maintain compression of the bales during transport.

If rolls are loaded horizontally, the cargo must be secured such that the rolls are not distorted. In the case of vertical loading, the rolls must be protected with covers against damage to the ends. Any spaces between vertical or horizontal rolls must be filled.

For cargo securing, see also chapter entitled Paper trade in the GDV Cargo Securing Manual.

For further information see also the chapters entitled

„Basic physical principles of cargo securing“,
„Road vehicles, selection, equipping and loading capacity“,
„Cargo securing materials“.

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Risk factors and loss prevention

RF Temperature

Millboard requires particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Most favorable travel temperature range: 0 – 25°C [1]

Optimum travel temperature: 20°C [1]

During cargo handling, temperatures below 0°C are also permissible for short periods. The product must be protected from sources of heat, in particular from intense solar radiation, as brittleness, buckling and an increased fire risk may arise (fiber begins to carbonize from temperatures as low as 90°C).


Figure 1

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RF Humidity/Moisture

Millboard requires particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Designation Humidity/water content Source
Relative humidity 65 – 70% [1]
Water content 8 – 10% [1]
Maximum equilibrium moisture content 70% [1]

Protection from dampening is essential if transport is to proceed without damage: protection must thus be provided from all moisture, such as rain, snow, condensation water, seawater and extremely high levels of relative humidity, or damp stacking surfaces.

Moisture- or wetness-damaged paperboard suffers depreciation due to linear distortion, torsion phenomena, changes in smoothness and color, reduction in mechanical tensile strength and waviness. When stacked, excess moisture leads to swelling of the fibers at the periphery, the edges becoming wavy. This damage is irreversible, since drying leads to warping due to inner tensions resulting from non-uniform distribution of the moisture within the sheet and to staining (drying rings).

At a water content of below 8%, brittleness and shrinkage of the fibers occur. Since stacked sheets cannot enter into a free exchange of moisture with the ambient air, this equalization is limited to the edges in contact with the air. This causes bulging of the edge areas and unwanted buckling of the board, which is promoted in particular by intense solar radiation.

Cargo sweat is particularly likely to occur during voyages from cold to hot climates or during unloading in tropical ports if the goods were not sufficiently warmed up during the voyage and were exposed to the hot ambient air upon opening of the hatch covers or container doors.

Paperboard must not be stowed in a hold with other goods which release moisture.

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RF Ventilation

Millboard requires particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Recommended ventilation conditions: air exchange rate: 6 changes/hour (airing), if the dew point of the external air is lower than the dew point of the hold air.

On voyages from cold to hot climates (Scandinavian ports, Continental ports – tropical unloading ports in Africa, Asia), every possible opportunity for warming the paper must be used to avoid cargo sweat.

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RF Biotic activity

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.

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RF Gases

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.

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RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion

Millboard is combustible and should therefore be protected from flying sparks. Smoking must be strictly prohibited.

Unlike CO2, water and foam cause considerable cargo losses due to wetting and swelling when used as fire-extinguishing agents.

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RF Odor

Active behavior Millboard does not release any odor.
Passive behavior Millboard is sensitive to unpleasant and/or pungent foreign odors.

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RF Contamination

Active behavior Millboard is a very clean cargo.
Passive behavior Millboard is extremely sensitive to contamination by dust, dirt, fats and oils.

Soiling damage is caused by dirty set-down surfaces during precarriage, storage, on the wharf and in the hold/container, by soiled hold or container walls and residues from earlier cargoes on the floor, walls, spar ceilings, underdeck beams or hatch cover girders.

Stow the cargo away from colorants, acids, chemicals, tar and fats/oils.

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RF Mechanical influences

Millboard is sensitive to mechanical influences such as pressure, impact and friction. The risk of damage is greatest during cargo handling. Since exposure to moisture reduces mechanical strength, the product must be kept absolutely dry.

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RF Toxicity / Hazards to health

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.

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RF Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.

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RF Insect infestation / Diseases

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.

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