Raisins [German version]

Table of contents

General:
Product information
Packaging
Transport
  Container transport
  Cargo securing


Risk factors and loss prevention:
Temperature Odor
Humidity/Moisture Contamination
Ventilation Mechanical influences
Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health
Gases Shrinkage/Shortage
Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation / Diseases




Product information

Product name

German Rosinen
English Raisins
French Raisins secs
Spanish Pasas
Scientific Vitis vinifera
CN/HS number * 0806 20 ff.


(* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)



Product description

Raisins are the dried, overripe fruit (dried fruit) of the grapevine, a climbing bush of the grapevine family (Vitaceae).

Raisin" is a collective term in particular for the following varieties:

Raisins on the bunch: seeded, large-berried, generally with stalk
Sultanas: seedless, large-berried and light yellow. Larger than currants and smaller than raisins (see Sultanas product page).
Currants: seedless, small-berried, purple/black color. Their name derives from the Greek city of Corinth (see Currants product page).

To produce: the grapes remain on the vine until they are overripe and, after picking, are dried in the air, in the sun (less aromatic than when dried in the shade) or in drying plants. Some are bleached by sulfuring (sulfur dioxide, SO2) and such treatment must be indicated on the packaging.

In order to prevent the raisins from agglomerating (sticking together), they may be treated with vegetable oil.

Due to their high sugar content (65 - 70%), raisins are very sweet.


Quality / Duration of storage

Raisins should be free of mold and foreign matter (stalks, sand, pests, especially mites) and be clean. They are graded by color and size. The lightest possible color is desired.

Maximum duration of storage is as follows:

Temperature Rel. humidity Max. duration of storage Source
4 - 20°C 65% 12 months [1]
7°C 50 - 60% 12 months [5]



Intended use

Raisins are intended to be eaten raw and are used as an ingredient in nut mixes, bakery products, muesli and desserts.


Figures

(Click on the individual Figures to enlarge them.)

Photo, raisins

Figure 1
Photo, raisins

Figure 2



Countries of origin

This Table shows only a selection of the most important countries of origin and should not be thought of as exhaustive.

Europe Turkey, Greece, Spain, Cyprus
Africa South Africa
Asia Iran, Afghanistan
America USA (California), Mexico
Australia Australia


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Packaging

Raisins are packaged in paperboard cartons, wooden boxes or bags.

When packaged in corrugated or millboard cartons, the product should be transported on pallets. The packaging size should be so selected that the dimensions of the individual area modules or area module multiples are conformed to the conventional pallet sizes (800x1200 mm and 1000x1200 mm) and cargo units may thus be produced.


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Transport

Symbols

Symbol, general cargo

General cargo


Temperature-controlled



Means of transport

Ship, truck, railroad


Container transport

Standard containers / refrigerated containers are used, subject to compliance with lower limits for water content of goods, packaging and container flooring.


Cargo handling

Since the packages are sensitive to impact, appropriate care must be taken during cargo handling.

In damp weather (rain, snow), the cargo must be protected from moisture, since this may lead to mold, rot, fermentation and tackiness.


Stowage factor

1.10 - 1.30 m³/t (boxes or cartons) [1]
1.39 - 1.45 m³/t (boxes) [11]


Stowage space requirements

Cool, dry, good ventilation if required


Segregation

Marker pen, oil crayon


Cargo securing

In order to ensure safe transport, the cargo must be stowed and secured in the means of transport in such a manner that it cannot slip or shift during transport. If loss of volume and degradation of quality are to be avoided, the packages must not be damaged by other articles or items of cargo.


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Risk factors and loss prevention

RF Temperature

Raisins require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions).

Precise details should be obtained from the consignor as to the storage temperature to be maintained.

Designation Temperature range Source
Favorable travel temperature 4 - 20°C [1]
7°C [5]


At temperatures > 25°C and on exposure to mechanical pressure, there is a risk of candying, agglomeration, syrup formation and fermentation.

Heat generally causes the risk of discoloration and hardening and the product should thus be stowed away from heat sources.

At temperatures < 10°C, mite growth is inhibited.


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RF Humidity/Moisture

Raisins require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions).

Precise details should be obtained from the consignor as to the relative humidity to be maintained.

Designation Humidity/water content Source
Relative humidity 65% [1]
50 - 60% [5]
Water content 14 - 16% [1]
Maximum equilibrium moisture content 55% [1]


As is evident from the steep gradient of the sorption isotherm (see the sorption isotherm for sultanas), raisins are strongly hygroscopic. Moisture (seawater, rain, condensation water) results in mold, rot, tackiness and fermentation. In order to prevent wetting of the product by sweat from hold or container surfaces, it should be protected with dunnage . If a fermentation process is initiated, it may eventually affect the entire cargo.

Poor drying (water content > 20%) results in mold and the raisins become inedible.

At relative humidities > 70%, raisins become tacky, grow mold and ferment and may support yeast growth.

At relative humidities < 60%, raisins become tough and hard.


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RF Ventilation

Raisins require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions).

If the product is at "shipping dryness", i.e. if there is no risk of degradation by mold etc. due to water content, ventilation is not required. If this is not the case, the following ventilation measures should be implemented:

Recommended ventilation conditions: air exchange rate: 6 changes/hour (airing)


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RF Biotic activity

Raisins display 3rd order biotic activity.

They belong to the class of goods in which respiration processes are suspended, but in which biochemical, microbial and other decomposition processes still proceed.


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RF Gases

No risk.


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RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion

Chemical reactions proceed rapidly at temperatures > 25°C. Considerable syrup formation and self-heating may be the result.


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RF Odor

Active behavior Raisins have a slight, pleasant odor.
Passive behavior Raisins are highly odor-sensitive.



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RF Contamination

Active behavior Excessive temperatures and excessively high stacking (pressure) may result in the formation of syrup, which may contaminate other goods.
Passive behavior Raisins are extremely sensitive to contamination.



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RF Mechanical influences

The packages must be secured appropriately in the hold or container so that they cannot move during transport. In the case of container transport, it is also important for the goods to be secured in the door area so that they cannot fall out of the container when the doors are opened.


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RF Toxicity / Hazards to health

Mite infestation may cause gastrointestinal conditions if the product is eaten. Inhalation of mite dust may cause asthma attacks and frequent contact with mites may result in skin conditions.

Treatment with sulfur dioxide (SO2) must be indicated.


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RF Shrinkage/Shortage

The normal weight loss due to a reduction in the moisture content of the product is approx. 1%.


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RF Insect infestation / Diseases

Under appropriate temperature and humidity conditions, there is a risk of infestation by maggots, mites, cockroaches, moths (dried fruit moth, meal moth, tobacco moth), beetles (sap beetles, sawtoothed grain beetles and flour beetles), rats, mice and ants.

Mite infestation may be determined by examination with a magnifying glass: mites may be distinguished from crystallized glucose because they are whitish, slow moving dots. Development from the egg to imago (sexually mature insect) takes approx. 10 days.

A fumigation certificate must be provided. If infested by insects (mites, maggots etc.), raisins must be reconditioned by fumigation.


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