Mangoes [German version]

Table of contents

General:
Product information
Packaging
Transport
  Container transport
  Cargo securing


Risk factors and loss prevention:
Temperature Odor
Humidity/Moisture Contamination
Ventilation Mechanical influences
Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health
Gases Shrinkage/Shortage
Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation / Diseases




Product information

Product name

German Mangos
English Mangoes
French Mangues
Spanish Mangos
Scientific Mangifera indica
CN/HS number * 0804 50 00


(* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)



Product description

Mangoes belong to the sumach family (Anacardiaceae) and were first cultivated in India some 4000 years ago. Together with the pineapple, they are considered the most delicious of tropical fruits and they have the highest vitamin A content of any fruit.

The many different varieties mean that they vary greatly in shape, color, size and weight. A mango may be oval, roundish, elongated or kidney-shaped; it may be green, green-yellow or even orange to red in color. The length of the mango is up to 25 cm, its maximum width 10 cm. The heaviest mangoes weigh up to 2 kg.

The delicious yellow to orange colored flesh, which constitutes 60 - 70% of the fruit, is located under the thin, inedible outer skin. Fibers join the flesh to the large, egg-shaped white stone inside, so explaining the difficulty of removing the stone from the flesh.

Mangoes are harvested when unripe (at the preclimacteric); they must still be green and firm-fleshed. Harvesting is done by hand or using special fruit picking poles. The greatest possible care must be taken with harvesting as even the smallest of cracks results in rapid spoilage by rotting.

At the time of harvest, the mangoes must be capable of post-ripening, as they will otherwise not reach optimum quality. Post-ripening may be accelerated by temperatures of 25 - 30°C and treatment with ethylene.

Once harvested, any exuding latex is cleaned off and the mango is treated with hot water and fungicides in order to extend the relatively short storage life.

The following are the main varieties for export:

"Kent"
"Tommy Atkins"
"Haden"
"Keitt"


Quality / Duration of storage

To ensure high quality, it is important for the skin to be undamaged. Even the slightest injury would result in rapid spoilage with this very sensitive fruit. Care must also be taken to ensure that the fruit is not overripe, as this would have a negative impact on salability.

According to [1], the maximum duration of storage and transport is 14 - 25 days. Attempts have been made to extend storage life by storage in a CO2 atmosphere, with wax coatings and hot water treatment. Given its poor keeping properties, importation of this juicy fruit to temperate latitudes is a very difficult task. Transport is generally by air freight. Particular attention must be paid to postharvest diseases if transport is to be by ship.

Where controlled atmosphere transport is used, transport and storage duration may be extended. The following parameters apply in such a case [16]:

Temperature Rel. humidity O2 CO2 Suitability for controlled atmosphere
12.2 - 13.3°C 85 - 90% 5% 5% very good



Intended use

Mangoes are mainly intended for fresh consumption, in which case the fruit are cut in half and the flesh spooned out. Mangoes are also canned and are used to make mango sauces, mango chutney, stewed mango and preserves. Due to their high nutritional value, mangoes are also used as baby and invalid food.


Figures

(Click on the individual Figures to enlarge them.)

Photo, mango

Figure 1
Photo, mango

Figure 2
Photo, mango

Figure 3



Countries of origin

This Table shows only a selection of the most important countries of origin and should not be thought of as exhaustive.

Europe Spain
Africa South Africa, United Arab Emirates, Kenya, Gambia
Asia India, Pakistan, China
America Mexico, Brazil, Cuba
Australia  


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Packaging

Mangoes are packaged in a single layer in fruit crates and cartons. Due to their great sensitivity to pressure, the fruit are sometimes wrapped in paper or padded with wood wool, bast, straw or hay.


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Transport

Symbols

Symbol, general cargo

General cargo


Temperature-controlled



Means of transport

Aircraft, ship, truck, railroad


Container transport

Refrigerated container with fresh air supply or controlled atmosphere.


Cargo handling

Mangoes are highly pressure- and impact-sensitive and appropriate care must therefore be taken during cargo handling.

The cold chain must at all costs be maintained, since the cargo will otherwise spoil rapidly.

In damp weather (rain, snow), the cargo must be protected from moisture, as there is otherwise a risk of premature spoilage.


Stowage factor

2.27 - 2.55 m3/t (fruit crates) [1]
2.26 - 2.83 m3/t [14]


Stowage space requirements

Cool, well ventilated


Segregation

Fiber rope, thin fiber nets, wooden dunnage


Cargo securing

Because of its considerable impact- and pressure-sensitivity, packages of this cargo must be secured in such a way that they are prevented from damaging each other. Spaces between packages or pallets must be filled, to prevent slippage or tipping. By selecting the correct packaging size or cargo unit (area module or area module multiple), holds can be tightly loaded (without spaces).


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Risk factors and loss prevention

RF Temperature

Mangoes require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions (SC VII) (storage climate conditions).

A written cooling order must be obtained from the consignor before loading is begun. This order must always be complied with during the entire transport chain.

The following Table merely constitutes an estimate of appropriate temperature ranges. Temperatures may deviate from these values, depending on the particular transport conditions.

Designation Temperature range Source
Loading temperature (recommended) approx. 12.2°C [1]
Travel temperature 12.2 - 13.3°C [1]
8 - 10°C [3]
10 - 14°C [5]
10 - 14°C [6]
10 - 13°C [14]


Depending on the variety, the chilling damage temperature for mangoes is 5 - 12°C.


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RF Humidity/Moisture

Mangoes require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions (SC VII) (storage climate conditions).

Designation Humidity/water content Source
Relative humidity 90% [1]
90% [3]
85 - 90% [5]
85 - 90% [6]
90% [14]
Water content approx. 75 - 85% [1]
Maximum equilibrium moisture content 85% [1]


Mangoes must be protected from all forms of moisture (seawater, rain and condensation water) to prevent mold, rotting and spoilage.


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RF Ventilation

Mangoes require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and ventilation conditions (SC VII) (storage climate conditions).

Recommended ventilation conditions: circulating air, 60 - 80 circulations/hour with continuous supply of fresh air, to prevent excessive concentrations of CO2, ethylene and other gases.


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RF Biotic activity

Mangoes display 2nd order biotic activity.

They are living organs in which respiration processes predominate, because their supply of new nutrients has been cut off by separation from the parent plant.

Care of the cargo during the voyage must be aimed at controlling respiration processes (release of CO2, water vapor, ethylene and heat) in such a way that the cargo is at the desired stage of ripeness on reaching its destination. Inadequate ventilation may result in fermentation and rotting of the cargo as a result of increased CO2 levels and inadequate supply of atmospheric oxygen (see Ventilation).


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RF Gases

CO2 evolution During storage, mangoes evolve CO2 by respiration processes.
Upper limit of permissible CO2 content 5 vol.%.
Ethylene evolution  
Active behavior Mangoes produce moderate quantities of ethylene, their ethylene production rate being 1 - 10 µl/kg*h [16].
Passive behavior The sensitivity of mangoes to ethylene may be classified as high [16]. They must not therefore be stored together with ethylene-producing goods (allelopathy).


If ventilation has been inadequate (frost) or has failed owing to a defect, life-threatening CO2 concentrations or O2 shortages may arise. Therefore, before anybody enters the hold, it must be ventilated and a gas measurement carried out.


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RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion

No risk.


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RF Odor

Active behavior Mangoes have a very slight, pleasant odor and do not therefore affect other products. Unripe fruit may have a terpentine-like odor.
Passive behavior The cargo is highly odor-sensitive and must therefore not be stored together with odor-emitting products.



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RF Contamination

Active behavior Mangoes do not cause contamination.
Passive behavior The cargo is sensitive to dirt, fats and oils. The holds or containers must be clean and in a thoroughly hygienic condition before loading.



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RF Mechanical influences

Mangoes must be handled with extreme care. They are highly sensitive to impact and undergo very rapid spoilage if injured.


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RF Toxicity / Hazards to health

If ventilation has been inadequate (frost) or has failed owing to a defect, life-threatening CO2 concentrations or O2 shortages may arise. Therefore, before anybody enters the hold, it must be ventilated and a gas measurement carried out. A CO2 concentration of 5 vol.% is permissible for mangoes. However, the TLV is 0.49 vol.%.


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RF Shrinkage/Shortage

If optimum relative humidity values are not maintained, weight loss may occur due to release of water vapor.


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RF Insect infestation / Diseases

Anthracnose, the most frequent postharvest disease, is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Infection with this fungus may start from the flower and results in the formation of black spots on the skin, after which the flesh softens and begins to rot.

Fruits affected by the mango fruit fly, anthracnose or the mango weevil (larva lives inside the stone) must be destroyed.

The quarantine regulations of the country of destination must be complied with and a phytosanitary certificate may have to be enclosed with the shipping documents. Information may be obtained from the phytosanitary authorities of the countries concerned.


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