Securing cargo for the road - the facts
Prof. Hermann Kaps
[German version]

Contents


Preface
   
Introduction
   
1. Tie-down lashing
1.1  Essentials of tie-down lashing
1.2  Traditional assessment models
1.3  Attempted improvements in EN 12195-1:2003
   1.3.1  Physical basis for the k factor
   1.3.2  The k factor in a tie-down lashing
   1.3.3  Mathematical models used in DIN EN 12195-1:2004
   1.3.4  The standard tension force STF
   1.3.5  Use of the friction between the lashing equipment and the cargo
1.4  Actual securing effect of a tie-down lashing
   1.4.1  Pre-tensioning forces in the initial situation
   1.4.2  Changes to the lashing lengths and lashing angles
   1.4.3  Elasticity of lashing belts
   1.4.4  Securing force in a lateral direction relative to the vehicle
   1.4.5  Securing force in a longitudinal direction relative to the vehicle
   1.4.6  Securing moment in a lateral direction relative to the vehicle
   1.4.7  Securing moment in a longitudinal direction relative to the vehicle
   1.4.8  Influence of the coefficient of friction between the lashing material and the cargo
1.5  Practical implementation
   1.5.1  Simplified assessment models
   1.5.2  Coefficient of friction between the loading surface and the cargo
   
2. Direct securing
2.1  Necessary movement of the cargo
   2.1.1  Lashing devices
   2.1.2  Blocking devices
2.2  Permitted pre-tensioning force for a direct lashing
2.3  Securing effect of a direct lashing arrangement
   2.3.1  Effect against horizontal movement (displacement, deformation)
   2.3.2  Effect against tipping
2.4  Static indeterminacy with complex direct securing scenarios
   2.4.1  Different lashing angles and lengths
   2.4.2  Different securing materials
   
3. Miscellaneous
3.1  Rolling factor
   3.1.1  Physical causes
   3.1.2  Problems with acceptance
3.2  Tipping test
   3.2.1  Equivalence to mathematical models
   3.2.2  Practicability
   3.2.3  Enhancement for any vertical accelerations
   
4. Summary




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