Paper bales [German version]

Table of contents

General:
Product information
Packaging
Transport
  Container transport
  Cargo securing


Risk factors and loss prevention:
Temperature Odor
Humidity/Moisture Contamination
Ventilation Mechanical influences
Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health
Gases Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft
Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation / Diseases




Product information

Product name

German Papierballen
English Paper bales
French  
Spanish  
CN/HS number *  


(* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)



Product description

Paper is a flat material made from fibers of predominantly vegetable origin by dewatering a fiber suspension to produce a fiber felt which is compressed and dried. It is made from wood (chemical pulp, mechanical pulp), waste paper, rags or straw. The upper limit for the basis weight of paper is 150 g/m².

As a result of new research, the previous manufacturing processes using environmentally unfriendly sulfates, sulfites or chlorine are being abandoned in favor of formic acid, and lower quality starting materials, such as hemp or straw, may be processed instead of wood.


Quality / Duration of storage

When undyed, paper is normally white, though exposure to light and solar radiation may turn it yellowish to brownish.


Intended use

A distinction may be drawn between five groups, according to principal intended use:

  1. Printing and publication paper (graphic paper): such paper is used in the production of newspapers, magazines, catalogs, books, calendars, telephone directories, timetables and address books, newsprint, magazine paper, bible paper, illustration and book printing paper.

  2. Office paper and stationery: copying paper, typewriter and printer paper, listing paper, postcard board, fine paper, bank-note paper, map and letter paper.

  3. Paper, cardboard and paperboard for packaging purposes: kraft paper, corrugated board, tissue paper, parchment paper, crepe paper, folding carton board, grayboard, wet machine board

  4. Sanitary paper: paper handkerchiefs, toilet paper, cosmetic tissues, diapers.

  5. Paper and paperboard for industrial and special purposes: filter paper, photographic paper, drawing cardboard, cigarette paper, paperboard for school purposes, album cardboard.


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Packaging

Paper in sheet form is divided into reams and packaged in rectangular packages wrapped in packing paper, which are strapped at top and bottom with steel strapping onto wooden boards for ease of handling and to prevent transport damage.


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Transport

Symbols

Symbol, general cargo

General cargo



Means of transport

Truck, ship, railroad


Container transport

Transport in standard containers, subject to compliance with limits for water content of goods, packaging and flooring.


Cargo handling

It is imperative that the goods be protected from moisture (rain, snow etc.) during cargo handling.

In the event of incorrect handling during loading, unloading and storage, there is a risk of diagonal displacement, which may cause damage.


Stowage factor

1.47 m³/t (bales wrapped in packing paper, packages on wooden laths strapped with metal strapping) [1]



Stowage space requirements

Holds/containers must be dry and clean. The goods must be protected from any possible leakage from hydraulic lines. In addition, the holds must be protected against ingress of moisture and spray.


Segregation

If necessary, marker pen/oil crayon (preferred)


Cargo securing

The cargo is to be secured in such a way that the bales or strapping are not damaged. Undamaged strapping is essential to maintain compression of the bales during transport.

For cargo securing, see also chapter entitled Paper trade in the GDV Cargo Securing Manual.

For further information see also the chapters entitled

"Basic physical principles of cargo securing",
"Road vehicles, selection, equipping and loading capacity",
"Cargo securing materials".



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Risk factors and loss prevention

RF Temperature

Paper bales require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions).

Most favorable travel temperature range: 0 - 25°C [1]

Optimum travel temperature: 20°C [1]

During cargo handling, temperatures below 0°C are also permissible for short periods. The product must be protected from heat sources and intense solar radiation in order to avoid yellowing, brittleness, buckling and an increased fire hazard (fiber carbonization begins at 90°C).

Buckling

Figure 1



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RF Humidity/Moisture

Paper bales require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Designation Humidity/water content Source
Relative humidity 65 - 70% [1]
Water content 6 - 10% [1]
Maximum equilibrium moisture content 70% [1]


Protection from dampening is essential if transport is to proceed without damage: protection must thus be provided from all moisture, such as rain, snow, condensation water, seawater and extremely high levels of relative humidity, or damp stacking surfaces.

Moisture- and wetness-damaged sheets of paper suffer depreciation due to distortion, torsion phenomena, changes in smoothness and color, reduction in mechanical tensile strength and waviness.

When stacked, excess moisture leads to swelling of the fibers at the periphery, the edges becoming wavy. This damage is irreversible, since drying leads to warping due to inner tensions resulting from non-uniform distribution of the moisture within the sheet and to staining (drying rings).

At a water content of < 6%, brittleness and shrinkage of the fibers occur. Since stacked sheets cannot enter into a free exchange of moisture with the ambient air, this equalization is limited to the edges in contact with the air. This causes bulging of the edge areas and unwanted buckling in the case of sheet paper in reams, which is promoted in particular by intense solar radiation.

Cargo sweat is particularly likely to occur during voyages from cold to hot climates or during unloading in tropical ports if the goods were not sufficiently warmed up during the voyage and were exposed to the hot ambient air upon opening of the hatch covers or container doors.

Paper bales must not be stowed in a hold with other goods which release moisture.


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RF Ventilation

Paper bales require particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Recommended ventilation conditions: air exchange rate: 6 changes/hour (airing), if the dew point of the external air is lower than the dew point of the hold air.

On voyages from cold to hot climates (Scandinavian ports, Continental ports - tropical unloading ports in Africa, Asia), every possible opportunity for warming the paper must be used to avoid cargo sweat.


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RF Biotic activity

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Gases

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion

Paper is combustible and should therefore be protected from flying sparks. Smoking must be strictly prohibited. When paper is stacked, chemical reactions resulting in spontaneous combustion may occur under certain circumstances (e.g. storage together with oxidants).

Unlike CO2, water and foam cause considerable cargo losses due to wetting and swelling when used as fire-extinguishing agents.


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RF Odor

Active behavior Paper bales do not release any odor.
Passive behavior Paper bales are sensitive to unpleasant and/or pungent foreign odors.



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RF Contamination

Active behavior Paper bales are a very clean cargo.
Passive behavior Paper bales are extremely sensitive to contamination and must in particular be stowed away from colorants, acids (exposure to nitric acid and other strong oxidants may result in chemically induced spontaneous combustion), chemicals, tar and fats/oils.



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RF Mechanical influences

Paper bales are very sensitive to mechanical influences such as pressure, impact and friction. The risk of damage is greatest during cargo handling. When handled with cargo nets, slings etc., diagonal displacement of the bales may arise, rendering damage inevitable.


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RF Toxicity / Hazards to health

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Insect infestation / Diseases

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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