Packing paper [German version]

Table of contents

General:
Product information
Packaging
Transport
  Container transport
  Cargo securing


Risk factors and loss prevention:
Temperature Odor
Humidity/Moisture Contamination
Ventilation Mechanical influences
Biotic activity Toxicity / Hazards to health
Gases Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft
Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion Insect infestation / Diseases




Product information

Product name

German Packpapier
English Packing paper
French Papier d'emballage
Spanish Papel de embalar
CN/HS number * 4804 00 ff.


(* EU Combined Nomenclature/Harmonized System)



Product description

Packing paper is the generic name for various types of paper used for packaging goods. A distinction is drawn between the following types of packing paper, for example.

Kraft paper is a very high-strength packaging paper, made from unbleached or bleached sulfate pulp or equivalent fibers. Sometimes, semichemical pulp is also used in production.
Due to its high strength and moisture resistance, kraftliner is used as an outer and intermediate ply, especially in corrugated board. The high strength is achieved thanks to the virgin fiber used in the production of kraftliner, which has a low recycled fiber content. Its basis weight is over 120 g/m².
Testliner, like kraftliner, is used for the outer and intermediate plies of corrugated board. However, its strength is not quite as high as that of kraftliner, as it has a higher recycled fiber content.
As its name would suggest, kraft sack paper is primarily used for sack/bag production. It is distinguished by elevated elasticity.
Kraft tissue is the term used for kraft paper with a basis weight of below 30 g/m².


Quality / Duration of storage

Packing paper quality depends on the intended use. According to [62], packing paper is classified using the following quality features:

Tensile strength
Bursting strength
Crease resistance
Abrasion resistance
Elasticity
Stiffness
Printability
Wet strength
Water repellency
Impermeability to aromas and water vapor


Intended use

Packing paper is used for packaging purposes. Kraft paper is suitable for the production of paper bags, for example, due to its strength. Kraft tissue paper is mainly used as a wrapping paper for protecting fragile goods and those with sensitive surfaces.





Packaging

Packing paper is wound ultratightly under pressure onto paperboard, metal or tube cores. It is generally transported/shipped unpackaged and merely strapped at the ends with steel strapping, although relatively thin grades of paper of 110 - 150 g/m² are sometimes packaged.


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Transport

Symbols

Symbol, general cargo

General cargo



Means of transport

Truck, ship (specially designed for transporting paper), railroad


Container transport

Transport in standard containers , subject to compliance with limits for water content of goods, packaging and flooring. For cargo securing, any spaces between the rolls must be appropriately filled.


Cargo handling

It is imperative that the goods be protected from moisture (rain, snow) during cargo handling, as there is a risk of losses caused by swelling and tearing of individual layers.

Incorrect cargo handling causes snagging. The risk is considerable in the event of repeated cargo handling.

Incorrect cargo handling may result in distortion of paper rolls (ovalization). Rolls exhibiting marked ovality can no longer be used for printing and have to be rewound.

Cargo handling of paper rolls should be performed only with special cargo handling gear and forklift trucks with paper roll clamps.


Stowage factor

2.85 m³/t (168 kg rolls, wrapped) [1]



Stowage space requirements

Holds must be swept absolutely clean and smooth, to prevent any possibility of damage to the ends. The goods must be protected from any possible leakage from hydraulic lines. In addition, the holds must be protected against ingress of moisture.


Segregation

Packing paper


Cargo securing

If the rolls are loaded horizontally and incorrectly secured, the lower rolls may be distorted by pressure from the rolls arranged on top of them.

Horizontal loading

Figure 1


For this reason, rolls of paper are frequently loaded vertically. To avoid damage to the ends, care must be taken to ensure that correct dunnage and stowage are applied. The rolls may be protected with covers against damage to the ends.

Vertical loading

Figure 2


Any spaces between the vertical rolls must be filled.

For cargo securing, see also chapter entitled Paper trade in the GDV Cargo Securing Manual.

For further information see also the chapters entitled

"Basic physical principles of cargo securing",
"Road vehicles, selection, equipping and loading capacity",
"Cargo securing materials".



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Risk factors and loss prevention

RF Temperature

Packing paper requires particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Most favorable travel temperature range: 0 - 25°C [1]

Optimum travel temperature: 20°C


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RF Humidity/Moisture

Packing paper requires particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Designation Humidity/water content Source
Relative humidity 65 - 70% [1]
Water content 5 - 9% [1]
Maximum equilibrium moisture content 70% [1]


Packing paper must be protected from all moisture, such as rain, snow, condensation water, seawater.

As paper is mainly made from vegetable fibers, it is hygroscopic and has a tendency to swell. Improper storage or care of the cargo may result in dimensional changes, distortion and reduced strength (tearing).

Although packing paper is less sensitive than newsprint and rotogravure paper, rolls of it still need protection against exposure to moisture of any kind. Cargo handling operations should be stopped in the event of precipitation. Since packing paper is not generally packaged, it is advisable for the upper layers to be additionally covered with plastic film.

Damp spots are not deemed to be damage unless the rolls have burst due to swelling. The product becomes damp only through direct contact with water. This means that only the thinner types and special paper can be damaged by rain and ship/container sweat, while normal kraft paper and wet strength kraft sack paper are less sensitive.


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RF Ventilation

Packing paper requires particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions (SC VI) (storage climate conditions) .

Recommended ventilation conditions: air exchange rate: 6 changes/hour (airing), if the dew point of the external air is lower than the dew point of the hold air.

On voyages from cold to hot climates (Scandinavian ports, Continental ports - tropical unloading ports in Africa, Asia), every possible opportunity for warming the paper must be used to avoid cargo sweat.


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RF Biotic activity

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Gases

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Self-heating / Spontaneous combustion

Paper is readily combustible and should therefore be protected from flying sparks. Smoking must be strictly prohibited.

Unlike CO2, water and foam cause considerable cargo losses due to wetting and swelling when used as fire-extinguishing agents.


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RF Odor

Active behavior Packing paper does not release any odor.
Passive behavior It is sensitive to unpleasant and/or pungent foreign odors.



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RF Contamination

Active behavior Packing paper is a very clean cargo.
Passive behavior Packing paper is sensitive to contamination by dust, dirt, fats/oils.

Soiling damage is caused by dirty set-down surfaces during precarriage, storage, on the wharf and in the hold/container, by soiled hold or container walls and residues from earlier cargoes on the floor, walls, spar ceilings, underdeck beams or hatch cover girders.

Stow the cargo away from colorants, acids, chemicals, tar and fats/oils.

Completely smooth, swept-clean set-down surfaces are necessary, so as to prevent damage to ends, because this usually results in total loss.



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RF Mechanical influences

Paper rolls are very sensitive to mechanical influences such as pressure, impact and friction. The risk of damage is greatest during cargo handling.

Total loss

Figure 3


The following types of damage occur:

Distortion: generally in the form of ovalization of the rolls, arising as a result of excessive stack pressure where rolls are stowed horizontally, since forces are borne solely by the linear bearing surface. In the case of newsprint, damage to the inner core results in interruptions in production or in problems during handling, as the rolls can no longer be lifted correctly. Slight distortion of the core may be remedied. Very oval paper rolls are no longer suitable for printing and are rejected by the receiver, thereby generally entailing total loss, or they have to be rewound, entailing rewinding costs and wasted time.

Distortion

Figure 4


Telescoping of the paper rolls is caused by pneumatic cargo handling equipment, the rolls being extended in the manner of a telescope, which always results in total loss of the rolls.

Edge damage arises when laying down vertical rolls or standing up horizontal rolls, by stowing rolls of different diameters on top of one another or if overhanging roll ends are not adequately supported and by shocks or impacts sustained during cargo handling.

Tear damage: snagged layers result in considerable paper losses, as the rolls become unusable to the depth of the snag. A cut only 2.5 cm deep may result in the loss of as many as 300 layers of paper (then suitable only for use as waste paper).

Snag

Figure 5


Rolls must not rub against (chafe) each other or other items; points at risk must be padded with paper bags and air cushions or the like.


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RF Toxicity / Hazards to health

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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RF Shrinkage / Shortage / Theft

The percentage loss caused by snags to rolls can be calculated according to the following formula:

S = loss in %

T = depth of damage

D = diameter of roll

d = diameter of core


Paper loss

Figure 6


The following table shows the outcome of damage as a percentage of roll weight with an assumed core diameter of 10 cm:

Depth of damage

[cm]
Roll diameter
91 cm 95 cm 100 cm
3.0 12.91 12.37 11.76
4.0 17.02 16.31 15.52
5.0 21.02 20.17 19.19
6.0 24.94 23.93 22.79
7.0 28.75 27.61 26.30
8.0 32.47 31.19 29.74
9.0 26.08 34.69 33.09
10.0 39.60 38.10 36.36



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RF Insect infestation / Diseases

This risk factor has no significant influence on the transport of this product.


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